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Crystals 2012, 2(2), 413-445; doi:10.3390/cryst2020413
Review

Moderate Temperature Dense Phase Hydrogen Storage Materials within the US Department of Energy (DOE) H2 Storage Program: Trends toward Future Development

1,†
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 and 4,*
Received: 20 March 2012; in revised form: 20 April 2012 / Accepted: 23 April 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Storage Alloys)
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Abstract: Hydrogen has many positive attributes that make it a viable choice to augment the current portfolio of combustion-based fuels, especially when considering reducing pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, conventional methods of storing H2 via high-pressure or liquid H2 do not provide long-term economic solutions for many applications, especially emerging applications such as man-portable or stationary power. Hydrogen storage in materials has the potential to meet the performance and cost demands, however, further developments are needed to address the thermodynamics and kinetics of H2 uptake and release. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated three Centers of Excellence focused on developing H2 storage materials that could meet the stringent performance requirements for on-board vehicular applications. In this review, we have summarized the developments that occurred as a result of the efforts of the Metal Hydride and Chemical Hydrogen Storage Centers of Excellence on materials that bind hydrogen through ionic and covalent linkages and thus could provide moderate temperature, dense phase H2 storage options for a wide range of emerging Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM FC) applications.
Keywords: hydrogen storage; metal hydrides; chemical hydrogen storage; review; applications; intermetallic compounds; complex hydrides; PEM fuel cells hydrogen storage; metal hydrides; chemical hydrogen storage; review; applications; intermetallic compounds; complex hydrides; PEM fuel cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

McWhorter, S.; O’Malley, K.; Adams, J.; Ordaz, G.; Randolph, K.; Stetson, N.T. Moderate Temperature Dense Phase Hydrogen Storage Materials within the US Department of Energy (DOE) H2 Storage Program: Trends toward Future Development. Crystals 2012, 2, 413-445.

AMA Style

McWhorter S, O’Malley K, Adams J, Ordaz G, Randolph K, Stetson NT. Moderate Temperature Dense Phase Hydrogen Storage Materials within the US Department of Energy (DOE) H2 Storage Program: Trends toward Future Development. Crystals. 2012; 2(2):413-445.

Chicago/Turabian Style

McWhorter, Scott; O’Malley, Kathleen; Adams, Jesse; Ordaz, Grace; Randolph, Katie; Stetson, Ned T. 2012. "Moderate Temperature Dense Phase Hydrogen Storage Materials within the US Department of Energy (DOE) H2 Storage Program: Trends toward Future Development." Crystals 2, no. 2: 413-445.


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