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Catalysts 2017, 7(9), 278; doi:10.3390/catal7090278

S- and N-Doped Graphene Nanomaterials for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Departamento de Química, Instituto Universitario de Materiales y Nanotecnología (IMN), Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Apartado 456, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
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Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Abstract

In the current work, heteroatom-doped graphene materials containing different atomic ratios of nitrogen and sulphur were employed as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic and alkaline media. To this end, the hydrothermal route and different chemical reducing agents were employed to synthesize the catalytic materials. The physicochemical characterization of the catalysts was performed by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis; meanwhile, the electrochemical performance of the materials toward the ORR was analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) techniques. The main results indicate that the ORR using heteroatom-doped graphene is a direct four-electron pathway, for which the catalytic activity is higher in alkaline than in acidic media. Indeed, a change of the reaction mechanism was observed with the insertion of N into the graphenic network, by the rate determining step changes from the first electrochemical step (formation of adsorbed OOH) on glassy carbon to the removal of adsorbed O (Oad) from the N-graphene surface. Moreover, the addition of sulphur atoms into the N-graphene structure increases the catalytic activity toward the ORR, as the desorption of Oad is accelerated. View Full-Text
Keywords: heteroatom-doped graphene; oxygen reduction reaction; fuel cells; rotating ring-disk electrode; electrocatalysis heteroatom-doped graphene; oxygen reduction reaction; fuel cells; rotating ring-disk electrode; electrocatalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera, L.M.; Fajardo, S.; Arévalo, M.C.; García, G.; Pastor, E. S- and N-Doped Graphene Nanomaterials for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Catalysts 2017, 7, 278.

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