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Catalysts 2017, 7(6), 169; doi:10.3390/catal7060169

An Overview on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil and Its Model Compounds

1
Bioenergy and Environment Science & Technology Laboratory, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Qinghua Donglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
2
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
3
Key Laboratory of Clean Production and Utilization Technology for Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
4
National Center for International Research of BioEnergy Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, China, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Chuan Lin
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract

Pyrolysis is considered the most promising way to convert biomass to fuels. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis oil is essential to produce high quality hydrocarbon fuels. Upgrading technologies have been developed for decades, and this review focuses on the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In order to declare the need for upgrading, properties of pyrolysis oil are firstly analyzed, and potential analysis methods including some novel methods are proposed. The high oxygen content of bio-oil leads to its undesirable properties, such as chemical instability and a strong tendency to re-polymerize. Acidity, low heating value, high viscosity and water content are not conductive to making bio-oils useful as fuels. Therefore, fast pyrolysis oils should be refined before producing deoxygenated products. After the analysis of pyrolysis oil, the HDO process is reviewed in detail. The HDO of model compounds including phenolics monomers, dimers, furans, carboxylic acids and carbohydrates is summarized to obtain sufficient information in understanding HDO reaction networks and mechanisms. Meanwhile, investigations of model compounds also make sense for screening and designing HDO catalysts. Then, we review the HDO of actual pyrolysis oil with different methods including two-stage treatment, co-feeding solvents and in-situ hydrogenation. The relative merits of each method are also expounded. Finally, HDO catalysts are reviewed in order of time. After the summarization of petroleum derived sulfured catalysts and noble metal catalysts, transitional metal carbide, nitride and phosphide materials are summarized as the new trend for their low cost and high stability. After major progress is reviewed, main problems are summarized and possible solutions are raised. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; pyrolysis oil; hydrodeoxygenation; catalysts biomass; pyrolysis oil; hydrodeoxygenation; catalysts
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Si, Z.; Zhang, X.; Wang, C.; Ma, L.; Dong, R. An Overview on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil and Its Model Compounds. Catalysts 2017, 7, 169.

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