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Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 15; doi:10.3390/catal6010015

A Review of Surface Analysis Techniques for the Investigation of the Phenomenon of Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis with Alkaline Ionic Conductors

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ave. Camilo José Cela 12, 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michalis Konsolakis
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis)
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Abstract

Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis (EPOC) with alkali ionic conductors has been widely studied in literature due to its operational advantages vs. alkali classical promotion. This phenomenon allows to electrochemically control the alkali promoter coverage on a catalyst surface in the course of the catalytic reaction. Along the study of this phenomenon, a large variety of in situ and ex situ surface analysis techniques have been used to investigate the origin and mechanism of this kind of promotion. In this review, we analyze the most important contributions made on this field which have clearly evidenced the presence of adsorbed alkali surface species on the catalyst films deposited on alkaline solid electrolyte materials during EPOC experiments. Hence, the use of different surface analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), or scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), led to a better understanding of the alkali promoting effect, and served to confirm the theory of electrochemical promotion on this kind of catalytic systems. Given the functional similarities between alkali electrochemical and chemical promotion, this review aims to bring closer this phenomenon to the catalysis scientific community. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical activation; EPOC; alkali promotion; surface analysis; ionic conductors; active catalyst supports; sodium; potassium electrochemical activation; EPOC; alkali promotion; surface analysis; ionic conductors; active catalyst supports; sodium; potassium
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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González-Cobos, J.; de Lucas-Consuegra, A. A Review of Surface Analysis Techniques for the Investigation of the Phenomenon of Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis with Alkaline Ionic Conductors. Catalysts 2016, 6, 15.

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