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Catalysts 2015, 5(3), 1554-1573; doi:10.3390/catal5031554

Bismuth Molybdate Catalysts Prepared by Mild Hydrothermal Synthesis: Influence of pH on the Selective Oxidation of Propylene

1
Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstr. 20, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology (IKFT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
3
Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Søltofts Plads Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
4
Institute for Applied Materials (IAM) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
5
Haldor Topsøe A/S, Nymøllevej 55, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Hohn
Received: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Landmarks of Catalysts)
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Abstract

A series of bismuth molybdate catalysts with relatively high surface area was prepared via mild hydrothermal synthesis. Variation of the pH value and Bi/Mo ratio during the synthesis allowed tuning of the crystalline Bi-Mo oxide phases, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The pH value during synthesis had a strong influence on the catalytic performance. Synthesis using a Bi/Mo ratio of 1/1 at pH ≥ 6 resulted in γ-Bi2MoO6, which exhibited a better catalytic performance than phase mixtures obtained at lower pH values. However, a significantly lower catalytic activity was observed at pH = 9 due to the low specific surface area. γ-Bi2MoO6 synthesized with Bi/Mo = 1/1 at pH = 6 and 7 exhibited relatively high surface areas and the best catalytic performance. All samples prepared with Bi/Mo = 1/1, except samples synthesized at pH = 1 and 9, showed better catalytic performance than samples synthesized with Bi/Mo = 2/3 at pH = 4 and 9 and γ-Bi2MoO6 synthesized by co-precipitation at pH = 7. At temperatures above 440 °C, the catalytic activity of the hydrothermally synthesized bismuth molybdates started to decrease due to sintering and loss of surface area. These results support that a combination of the required bismuth molybdate phase and a high specific surface area is crucial for a good performance in the selective oxidation of propylene. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis; bismuth molybdate; effect of pH; propylene oxidation; acrolein hydrothermal synthesis; bismuth molybdate; effect of pH; propylene oxidation; acrolein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schuh, K.; Kleist, W.; Høj, M.; Trouillet, V.; Beato, P.; Jensen, A.D.; Grunwaldt, J.-D. Bismuth Molybdate Catalysts Prepared by Mild Hydrothermal Synthesis: Influence of pH on the Selective Oxidation of Propylene. Catalysts 2015, 5, 1554-1573.

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