Next Article in Journal
Ni-CeO2/C Catalysts with Enhanced OSC for the WGS Reaction
Next Article in Special Issue
Increasing Octane Value in Catalytic Cracking of n-Hexadecane with Addition of *BEA Type Zeolite
Previous Article in Journal
CNT-TiO2−δ Composites for Improved Co-Catalyst Dispersion and Stabilized Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Catalysts 2015, 5(1), 286-297; doi:10.3390/catal5010286

Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts

1
Center of Catalysis, Petroleum and Petrochemicals, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, 1042A, Venezuela
2
Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia, 46003, Venezuela
Present address: Chevron Energy Technology Company, 100 Chevron Way, Suite 50-1279, Richmond, CA 94802, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Russell R. Chianelli
Received: 6 December 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Upgrading Tar Sands and Heavy Crude)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4705 KB, uploaded 5 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

An extra-heavy crude oil underground upgrading concept and laboratory experiments are presented which involve the addition of a hydrogen donor (tetralin) to an Orinoco Basin extra-heavy crude oil under steam injection conditions (280–315 °C and residence times of at least 24-h). Three iron-containing nanocatalysts (20 nm, 60 nm and 90 nm) were used and the results showed increases of up to 8° in API gravity, 26% desulfurization and 27% reduction in the asphaltene content of the upgraded product in comparison to the control reaction using inert sand. The iron nanocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDAX, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before and after the upgrading reactions. The results indicated the presence of hematite (Fe2O3) as the predominant iron phase. The data showed that the catalysts were deactivating by particle sintering (~20% increase in particle size) and also by carbon deposition. Probable mechanisms of reactions are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: downhole; upgrading; extra-heavy crude oil; hydrogen donors; iron catalyst downhole; upgrading; extra-heavy crude oil; hydrogen donors; iron catalyst
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ovalles, C.; Rivero, V.; Salazar, A. Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts. Catalysts 2015, 5, 286-297.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top