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Catalysts 2014, 4(4), 375-396; doi:10.3390/catal4040375

How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles?

Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628BL Delft, The Netherland
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Received: 31 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Nanostructured Catalytic Materials from Microemulsions)
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Abstract

Nanometer-sized materials have significantly different chemical and physical properties compared to bulk material. However, these properties do not only depend on the elemental composition but also on the structure, shape, size and arrangement. Hence, it is not only of great importance to develop synthesis routes that enable control over the final structure but also characterization strategies that verify the exact nature of the nanoparticles obtained. Here, we consider the verification of contemporary synthesis strategies for the preparation of bimetallic core-shell particles in particular in relation to potential particle structures, such as partial absence of core, alloying and raspberry-like surface. It is discussed what properties must be investigated in order to fully confirm a covering, pin-hole free shell and which characterization techniques can provide such information. Not uncommonly, characterization strategies of core-shell particles rely heavily on visual imaging like transmission electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of various techniques based on scattering, diffraction, transmission and absorption for investigating core-shell particles are discussed and, in particular, cases where structural ambiguities still remain will be highlighted. Our main conclusion is that for particles with extremely thin or mono-layered shells—i.e., structures outside the limitation of most imaging techniques—other strategies, not involving spectroscopy or imaging, are to be employed. We will provide a specific example of Fe-Pt core-shell particles prepared in bicontinuous microemulsion and point out the difficulties that arise in the characterization process of such particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: core-shell; characterization; bimetallic catalysts core-shell; characterization; bimetallic catalysts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Westsson, E.; Koper, G.J. How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles? Catalysts 2014, 4, 375-396.

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