Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 588-598; doi:10.3390/catal3030588
Article

Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3

Received: 21 April 2013; in revised form: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: One of the more elusive classes of macrocycles includes the calix[5]pyrroles, which can be obtained from pyrrole and acetone in the presence of low concentrations of Bi(NO3)3-5H2O. An isotopic labeling experiment aided the proposal of a mechanism to explain the formation of calix[5]pyrrole at low acid concentrations and the exclusive formation of calix[4]pyrrole at high acid concentrations. We assume that the mechanism involves HNO3, which is released from the Bi salt.
Keywords: calixpyrrole; calix[5]pyrrole; bismuth nitrate; anion-guest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chacón-García, L.; Contreras-Celedón, C.A.; Tapia-Juárez, M. Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3. Catalysts 2013, 3, 588-598.

AMA Style

Chacón-García L, Contreras-Celedón CA, Tapia-Juárez M. Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3. Catalysts. 2013; 3(3):588-598.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chacón-García, Luis; Contreras-Celedón, Claudia A.; Tapia-Juárez, Melissa. 2013. "Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3." Catalysts 3, no. 3: 588-598.

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