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Computers, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle BlendCAC: A Smart Contract Enabled Decentralized Capability-Based Access Control Mechanism for the IoT
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
While Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been widely recognized as an essential part of Smart Cities, it also brings new challenges in terms of privacy and security. Access control (AC) is among the top security concerns, which is critical in resource and
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While Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been widely recognized as an essential part of Smart Cities, it also brings new challenges in terms of privacy and security. Access control (AC) is among the top security concerns, which is critical in resource and information protection over IoT devices. Traditional access control approaches, like Access Control Lists (ACL), Role-based Access Control (RBAC) and Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC), are not able to provide a scalable, manageable and efficient mechanism to meet the requirements of IoT systems. Another weakness in today’s AC is the centralized authorization server, which can cause a performance bottleneck or be the single point of failure. Inspired by the smart contract on top of a blockchain protocol, this paper proposes BlendCAC, which is a decentralized, federated capability-based AC mechanism to enable effective protection for devices, services and information in large-scale IoT systems. A federated capability-based delegation model (FCDM) is introduced to support hierarchical and multi-hop delegation. The mechanism for delegate authorization and revocation is explored. A robust identity-based capability token management strategy is proposed, which takes advantage of the smart contract for registration, propagation, and revocation of the access authorization. A proof-of-concept prototype has been implemented on both resources-constrained devices (i.e., Raspberry PI nodes) and more powerful computing devices (i.e., laptops) and tested on a local private blockchain network. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the BlendCAC to offer a decentralized, scalable, lightweight and fine-grained AC solution for IoT systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Edge Computing)
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Open AccessArticle ASIR: Application-Specific Instruction-Set Router for NoC-Based MPSoCs
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
The end of Dennard scaling led to the use of heterogeneous multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs). Heterogeneous MPSoCs provide a high efficiency in terms of energy and performance due to the fact that each processing element can be optimized for an application task. However, the
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The end of Dennard scaling led to the use of heterogeneous multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs). Heterogeneous MPSoCs provide a high efficiency in terms of energy and performance due to the fact that each processing element can be optimized for an application task. However, the evolution of MPSoCs shows a growing number of processing elements (PEs), which leads to tremendous communication costs, tending to become the performance bottleneck. Networks-on-chip (NoCs) are a promising and scalable intra-chip communication technology for MPSoCs. However, these technological advances require novel and effective programming methodologies to efficiently exploit them. This work presents a novel router architecture called application-specific instruction-set router (ASIR) for field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGA)-based MPSoCs. It combines data transfers with application-specific processing by adding high-level synthesized processing units to routers of the NoC. The execution of application-specific operations during data exchange between PEs exploits efficiently the transmission time. Furthermore, the processing units can be programmed in C/C++ using high-level synthesis, and accordingly, they can be specifically optimized for an application. This approach enables transferred data to be processed by a processing element, such as a MicroBlaze processor, before the transmission or by a router during the transmission. Moreover, a static mapping algorithm for applications modeled by a Kahn process network-based graph is introduced that maps tasks to the MicroBlaze processors and processing units. The mapping algorithm optimizes the communication cost by allocating tasks to nearest neighboring PEs. This complete methodology significantly simplifies the design and programming of ASIR-based MPSoCs. Furthermore, it efficiently exploits the heterogeneity of processing capabilities inside the routers and MicroBlaze processors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Core Systems-On-Chips Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Facial Biometrics Security for Smart Devices
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Biometrics play an avid role in today’s mobile security realm. Security experts have attempted to implement different forms of biometrics, from finger, hand, and signature to voice, retina, and iris. Recently, facial biometrics has been added to this list and has introduced another
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Biometrics play an avid role in today’s mobile security realm. Security experts have attempted to implement different forms of biometrics, from finger, hand, and signature to voice, retina, and iris. Recently, facial biometrics has been added to this list and has introduced another method for a more secure form of authentication. Various organizations believe that by using something you are, like biometrics, their system would be strongly secured. As this may be true, applications used for facial biometrics have lost their credibility when easily defeated. This may be through printed photographs, electronic images, and even look alike. This paper explores the scientific background as to why facial biometrics have become a trusted form of authentication, a user-friendly method, and explores the security of mobile device applications available for Android and iOS systems. We test several applications with our developed methods and discuss the results. Full article
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