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Cancers 2017, 9(9), 116; doi:10.3390/cancers9090116

Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81679 Munich, Germany
2
Clinical Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
3
Institute for Advanced Study and Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPSM), Department Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85747 Garching, Germany
4
Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry, Technische Universität München, Walther-Meißner-Straße 3, 85748 Garching, Germany
5
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81679 Munich, Germany
6
Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität München, Trogerstraße 18, 81675 Munich, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helen M. Sheldrake
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrins in Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2843 KB, uploaded 4 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Such transmembrane adhesion and signaling receptors are thus recognized as promising and well accessible targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications for directly attacking cancer cells and their fatal microenvironment. Recently, specific small peptidic and peptidomimetic ligands as well as antibodies binding to distinct integrin subtypes have been developed and synthesized as new drug candidates for cancer treatment. Understanding the distinct functions and interplay of integrin subtypes is a prerequisite for selective intervention in integrin-mediated diseases. Integrin subtype-specific ligands labelled with radioisotopes or fluorescent molecules allows the characterization of the integrin patterns in vivo and later the medical intervention via subtype specific drugs. The coating of nanoparticles, larger proteins, or encapsulating agents by integrin ligands are being explored to guide cytotoxic reagents directly to the cancer cell surface. These ligands are currently under investigation in clinical studies for their efficacy in interference with tumor cell adhesion, migration/invasion, proliferation, signaling, and survival, opening new treatment approaches in personalized medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: RGD-recognizing integrins; αvβ3; αvβ5; αvβ6; αvβ8; α5β1; α8β1; integrin adhesion; migration; apoptosis; and signaling; synthetic integrin ligands; cyclic peptide; peptidomimetics; Cilengitide; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β); metastasis; angiogenesis RGD-recognizing integrins; αvβ3; αvβ5; αvβ6; αvβ8; α5β1; α8β1; integrin adhesion; migration; apoptosis; and signaling; synthetic integrin ligands; cyclic peptide; peptidomimetics; Cilengitide; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β); metastasis; angiogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nieberler, M.; Reuning, U.; Reichart, F.; Notni, J.; Wester, H.-J.; Schwaiger, M.; Weinmüller, M.; Räder, A.; Steiger, K.; Kessler, H. Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer. Cancers 2017, 9, 116.

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