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Cancers 2017, 9(6), 63; doi:10.3390/cancers9060063

Combination of Near Infrared Light-Activated Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Indocyanine Green with Etoposide to Treat Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
Departments of Biology and Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Cancer Therapy)
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Abstract

Indocyanine green (ICG) has been reported as a potential near-infrared (NIR) photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. However the application of ICG-mediated PDT is both intrinsically and physiologically limited. Here we report a combination of ICG-PDT with a chemotherapy drug etoposide (VP-16), aiming to enhance the anticancer efficacy, to circumvent limitations of PDT using ICG, and to reduce side effects of VP-16. We found in controlled in vitro cell-based assays that this combination is effective in killing non-small-cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC, A549 cell line). We also found that the combination of ICG-PDT and VP-16 exhibits strong synergy in killing non-small-cell lung cancer cells partially through inducing more DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), while it has a much weaker synergy in killing human normal cells (GM05757). Furthermore, by studying the treatment sequence dependence and the cytotoxicity of laser-irradiated mixtures of ICG and VP-16, we found that the observed synergy involves direct/indirect reactions between ICG and VP-16. We further propose that there exists an electron transfer reaction between ICG and VP-16 under irradiation. This study therefore shows the anticancer efficacy of ICG-PDT combined with VP-16. These findings suggest that ICG-mediated PDT may be applied in combination with the chemotherapy drug VP-16 to treat some cancers, especially the non-small-cell lung cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy (PDT); chemotherapy; lung cancer; combination therapy; indocyanine green (ICG); etoposide (VP-16) photodynamic therapy (PDT); chemotherapy; lung cancer; combination therapy; indocyanine green (ICG); etoposide (VP-16)
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Luo, T.; Zhang, Q.; Lu, Q.-B. Combination of Near Infrared Light-Activated Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Indocyanine Green with Etoposide to Treat Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Cancers 2017, 9, 63.

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