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Cancers 2017, 9(5), 49; doi:10.3390/cancers9050049

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Potential of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer

Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan
Academic Editors: Takahiro Ochiya and Ryou-u Takahashi
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths resulting from cancer owing to late diagnosis and limited treatment intervention. MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression or target messenger RNA degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests various roles for microRNAs, including development and progression of lung cancers. Because microRNAs are degraded to a much lesser extent in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and are present not only in tumor tissues but also in body fluids, there is an increased potential in microRNA analyses for cancer research. In this review, recent studies of microRNA are introduced and briefly summarized, with a focus on the association of microRNAs with histological subtypes, genetic driver alterations, therapeutically-targeted molecules, and carcinogens. The reported circulating microRNA signature for the early detection of lung cancer and the implications of microRNAs as the modulators of tumor immune response are also introduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenocarcinoma; asbestos; driver mutation; genetic alteration; histology; miRNA; molecular pathology; oncology; smoking adenocarcinoma; asbestos; driver mutation; genetic alteration; histology; miRNA; molecular pathology; oncology; smoking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Inamura, K. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Potential of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer. Cancers 2017, 9, 49.

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