Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Minimally Invasive Urology Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008, China
Department of Urology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emmanuel S. Antonarakis
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Li, P.; Chen, J.; Miyamoto, H. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer. Cancers 2017, 9, 20.
Li P, Chen J, Miyamoto H. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer. Cancers. 2017; 9(2):20.
Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi. 2017. "Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer." Cancers 9, no. 2: 20.
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