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Cancers 2017, 9(12), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers9120161

Targeting Autophagy in ALK-Associated Cancers

1
Merck Serono S.A., Route de Fenil 25, Z.I. B, 1804 Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland
2
Inserm, UMR1037, CNRS, ERL5294, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France
3
European Research Initiative on ALK-related malignancies (ERIA)
4
TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European Network for Multidisciplinary Research and Translation of Autophagy Knowledge, COST Action CA15138
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting ALK in Cancer)
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Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process, which is used by the cells for cytoplasmic quality control. This process is induced following different kinds of stresses e.g., metabolic, environmental, or therapeutic, and acts, in this framework, as a cell survival mechanism. However, under certain circumstances, autophagy has been associated with cell death. This duality has been extensively reported in solid and hematological cancers, and has been observed during both tumor development and cancer therapy. As autophagy plays a critical role at the crossroads between cell survival and cell death, its involvement and therapeutic modulation (either activation or inhibition) are currently intensively studied in cancer biology, to improve treatments and patient outcomes. Over the last few years, studies have demonstrated the occurrence of autophagy in different Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-associated cancers, notably ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), Neuroblastoma (NB), and Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). In this review, we will first briefly describe the autophagic process and how it can lead to opposite outcomes in anti-cancer therapies, and we will then focus on what is currently known regarding autophagy in ALK-associated cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) oncogene; anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); neuroblastoma (NB); rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS); tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); combined therapy; cytoprotective autophagy; cytotoxic autophagy; autophagic switch ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) oncogene; anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); neuroblastoma (NB); rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS); tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); combined therapy; cytoprotective autophagy; cytotoxic autophagy; autophagic switch
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Frentzel, J.; Sorrentino, D.; Giuriato, S. Targeting Autophagy in ALK-Associated Cancers. Cancers 2017, 9, 161.

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