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Cancers 2014, 6(4), 2187-2223; doi:10.3390/cancers6042187

Standard of Care and Promising New Agents for Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, Rome 00161, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, Rome 00161, Italy
3
Department of Radiology, Oncology and Human Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, Rome 00161, Italy
4
Department of Surgical Science, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, Rome 00161, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Biology and Treatment)
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Abstract

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a cluster of heterogeneous diseases, all of them sharing the lack of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 protein. They are characterized by different biological, molecular and clinical features, including a poor prognosis despite the increased sensitivity to the current cytotoxic therapies. Several studies have identified important molecular features which enable further subdivision of this type of tumor. We are drawing from genomics, transcription and translation analysis at different levels, to improve our knowledge of the molecular alterations along the pathways which are activated during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. How this information should be used for the rational selection of therapy is an ongoing challenge and the subject of numerous research studies in progress. Currently, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), HSP90 and Aurora inhibitors are most used as targeting agents in metastatic setting clinical trials. In this paper we will review the current knowledge about the genetic subtypes of TNBC and their different responses to conventional therapeutic strategies, as well as to some new promising molecular target agents, aimed to achieve more tailored therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: TNBC; VEGF; Aurora; Hsp90; PARP; immunotherapy; platinum salts; EGFR; PI3K/AKT; androgen receptor TNBC; VEGF; Aurora; Hsp90; PARP; immunotherapy; platinum salts; EGFR; PI3K/AKT; androgen receptor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mancini, P.; Angeloni, A.; Risi, E.; Orsi, E.; Mezi, S. Standard of Care and Promising New Agents for Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer. Cancers 2014, 6, 2187-2223.

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