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Cancers 2014, 6(1), 240-296; doi:10.3390/cancers6010240
Review

Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

 and *
Received: 16 December 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress)
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Abstract: Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function.
Keywords: gelatinase B/MMP-9; tumour progression; angiogenesis; metastasis; inflammation; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; invasion; motility; immune surveillance; gelatinase B/MMP-9 inhibitors gelatinase B/MMP-9; tumour progression; angiogenesis; metastasis; inflammation; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; invasion; motility; immune surveillance; gelatinase B/MMP-9 inhibitors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farina, A.R.; Mackay, A.R. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression. Cancers 2014, 6, 240-296.

AMA Style

Farina AR, Mackay AR. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression. Cancers. 2014; 6(1):240-296.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farina, Antonietta R.; Mackay, Andrew R. 2014. "Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression." Cancers 6, no. 1: 240-296.


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