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Cancers 2013, 5(4), 1643-1654; doi:10.3390/cancers5041643
Article

Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

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Received: 1 October 2013; in revised form: 16 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Associated Macrophages)
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Abstract: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.
Keywords: tumor associated macrophage; tumorigenesis; lung cancer; NNK; BHA; ROS tumor associated macrophage; tumorigenesis; lung cancer; NNK; BHA; ROS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Choksi, S.; Liu, Z.-G. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis. Cancers 2013, 5, 1643-1654.

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Choksi S, Liu Z-G. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis. Cancers. 2013; 5(4):1643-1654.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang. 2013. "Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis." Cancers 5, no. 4: 1643-1654.


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