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Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma
Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2013; in revised form: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Abstract: Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.
Keywords: glioblastoma; molecular classification of glioblastoma; molecular biomarkers; imaging biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style
McNamara, M.G.; Sahebjam, S.; Mason, W.P. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma. Cancers 2013, 5, 1103-1119.
McNamara MG, Sahebjam S, Mason WP. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma. Cancers. 2013; 5(3):1103-1119.
McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P. 2013. "Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma." Cancers 5, no. 3: 1103-1119.