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Cancers 2013, 5(3), 1103-1119; doi:10.3390/cancers5031103

Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

 and *
Received: 29 June 2013; in revised form: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma)
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Abstract: Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.
Keywords: glioblastoma; molecular classification of glioblastoma; molecular biomarkers; imaging biomarkers glioblastoma; molecular classification of glioblastoma; molecular biomarkers; imaging biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

McNamara, M.G.; Sahebjam, S.; Mason, W.P. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma. Cancers 2013, 5, 1103-1119.

AMA Style

McNamara MG, Sahebjam S, Mason WP. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma. Cancers. 2013; 5(3):1103-1119.

Chicago/Turabian Style

McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P. 2013. "Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma." Cancers 5, no. 3: 1103-1119.

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