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Cancers 2013, 5(1), 255-280; doi:10.3390/cancers5010255
Review

Vitamin D: Pharmacokinetics and Safety When Used in Conjunction with the Pharmaceutical Drugs Used in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review

1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
 and
1,2,*
1 Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, 1255 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M2K 1E2, Canada 2 Ottawa Integrative Cancer Centre, 29 Bayswater Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 2E5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
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Abstract

Vitamin D has reported anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties modulated through gene transcription and non-genomic signaling cascades. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available research on interactions and pharmacokinetics between vitamin D and the pharmaceutical drugs used in patients with cancer. Hypercalcemia was the most frequently reported side effect that occurred in high dose calcitriol. The half-life of 25(OH)D3 and/or 1,25(OH)2D3 was found to be impacted by cimetidine; rosuvastatin; prednisone and possibly some chemotherapy drugs. No unusual adverse effects in cancer patients; beyond what is expected from high dose 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation, were revealed through this review. While sufficient evidence is lacking, supplementation with 1,25(OH)2D3 during chemotherapy appears to have a low risk of interaction. Further interactions with vitamin D3 have not been studied.
Keywords: vitamin D; calcitriol; pharmacokinetics; drug interactions; systematic review vitamin D; calcitriol; pharmacokinetics; drug interactions; systematic review
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Skidmore, B.; Fritz, H.; Campbell, T.; Seely, D. Vitamin D: Pharmacokinetics and Safety When Used in Conjunction with the Pharmaceutical Drugs Used in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2013, 5, 255-280.

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