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Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy
Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth 6000, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2012; in revised form: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
Abstract: Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy.
Keywords: tumor stroma; tumor microenvironment; angiogenesis; immunotherapy
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Johansson, A.; Ganss, R. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy. Cancers 2012, 4, 340-353.
Johansson A, Ganss R. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy. Cancers. 2012; 4(2):340-353.
Johansson, Anna; Ganss, Ruth. 2012. "Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy." Cancers 4, no. 2: 340-353.