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Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3002-3017; doi:10.3390/cancers3033002
Opinion

Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity)

1,* , 2
,
3
,
4
 and
1,5
1 Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123, Sudan 2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan 3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan 4 General Directorate of Pharmacy, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum 11111, Sudan 5 Al Jawda Medical Hospital, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2011 / Revised: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
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Abstract

Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo’s Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy.
Keywords: Warburg-effect; Crabtree-effect; Pasteur-effect; lactate symbiosis; cannibalism; reverse evolution; convergent evolution Warburg-effect; Crabtree-effect; Pasteur-effect; lactate symbiosis; cannibalism; reverse evolution; convergent evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Alfarouk, K.O.; Shayoub, M.E.; Muddathir, A.K.; Elhassan, G.O.; Bashir, A.H. Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity). Cancers 2011, 3, 3002-3017.

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