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Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications
The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2011; in revised form: 28 May 2011 / Accepted: 1 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Abstract: The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed.
Keywords: nanomedicine; nanoparticles; dendrimer; PLGA; quantum dots; oncology; site-directed delivery; early detection; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Mousa, S.A.; Bharali, D.J. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications. Cancers 2011, 3, 2888-2903.
Mousa SA, Bharali DJ. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications. Cancers. 2011; 3(3):2888-2903.
Mousa, Shaker A.; Bharali, Dhruba J. 2011. "Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications." Cancers 3, no. 3: 2888-2903.