Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2696-2708; doi:10.3390/cancers3022696
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Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

1,* email, 2email and 2email
Received: 27 April 2011; in revised form: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 20 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approaches mandate a change in the design of clinical trials and biomarkers chosen for efficacy assessment for preventative, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatments. Cancer treatments could be evaluated by assessing stem cell markers before and after treatment. Targeted stem cell specific treatment of cancers may not result in “complete” or “partial” responses radiologically, as stem cell targeting may not reduce the tumor bulk, but eliminate further tumorigenic potential. These changes are discussed using breast, pancreatic, and lung cancer as examples.
Keywords: cancer stem cell model; clinical trial design; preventative therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reddy, R.M.; Kakarala, M.; Wicha, M.S. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer. Cancers 2011, 3, 2696-2708.

AMA Style

Reddy RM, Kakarala M, Wicha MS. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer. Cancers. 2011; 3(2):2696-2708.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reddy, Rishindra M.; Kakarala, Madhuri; Wicha, Max S. 2011. "Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer." Cancers 3, no. 2: 2696-2708.

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