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Biomarkers in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Challenges in Translating Clinical Research into Practice
Sarah Cannon Research Institute, 93 Harley Street, W1G 6AD, London, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2011; Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
Abstract: The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology makes the study and clinical use of biomarkers imperative for improving response and survival, reducing toxicity and ensuring economic sustainability. Colorectal cancer, among others, is at the forefront of development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers; however, the difficulty lies in translating potential biomarkers garnered from retrospective analyses in small numbers of patients to generalizable and affordable biomarkers used worldwide. This review outlines the progress made in prognostic and predictive biomarkers in advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC) from the early use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to the KRAS mutation and beyond. Future challenges are to incorporate standardized and validated methods preferentially during early phases of drug development linked with sophisticated biostatistical support. New trial designs focusing on biomarkers will be essential not only for better understanding of mechanisms of action, but also to make confident ‘go or no-go’ decisions.
Keywords: prognostic biomarker; predictive biomarker; colorectal cancer; kras mutation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lemech, C.; Arkenau, H.-T. Biomarkers in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Challenges in Translating Clinical Research into Practice. Cancers 2011, 3, 1844-1860.
Lemech C, Arkenau H-T. Biomarkers in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Challenges in Translating Clinical Research into Practice. Cancers. 2011; 3(2):1844-1860.
Lemech, Charlotte; Arkenau, Hendrik-Tobias. 2011. "Biomarkers in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Challenges in Translating Clinical Research into Practice." Cancers 3, no. 2: 1844-1860.