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Cancers 2011, 3(1), 927-944; doi:10.3390/cancers3010927
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Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis

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Received: 11 January 2011; in revised form: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Abstract: In nearly all human cancers, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis increases clinical staging and portends worse prognosis (compared to patients without LN metastasis). Herein, principally reviewing experimental and clinical data related to malignant melanoma, we discuss diverse factors that are mechanistically involved in LN metastasis. We highlight recent data that link tumor microenvironment, including inflammation (at the cellular and cytokine levels) and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, with nodal metastasis. Many of the newly identified genes that appear to influence LN metastasis facilitate general motility, chemotactic, or invasive properties that also increase the ability of cancer cells to disseminate and survive at distant organ sites. These new biomarkers will help predict clinical outcome and point to novel future therapies in metastatic melanoma as well as other cancers.
Keywords: melanoma; lymph node metastasis; microenvironment; inflammation; cytokines; chemokines; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; lymphangiogenesis melanoma; lymph node metastasis; microenvironment; inflammation; cytokines; chemokines; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; lymphangiogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Takekoshi, T.; Sullivan, A.; Hwang, S.T. Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis. Cancers 2011, 3, 927-944.

AMA Style

Wu X, Takekoshi T, Sullivan A, Hwang ST. Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):927-944.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Xuesong; Takekoshi, Tomonori; Sullivan, Ashley; Hwang, Sam T. 2011. "Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis." Cancers 3, no. 1: 927-944.


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