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Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis
Department of Dermatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2011; in revised form: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Abstract: In nearly all human cancers, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis increases clinical staging and portends worse prognosis (compared to patients without LN metastasis). Herein, principally reviewing experimental and clinical data related to malignant melanoma, we discuss diverse factors that are mechanistically involved in LN metastasis. We highlight recent data that link tumor microenvironment, including inflammation (at the cellular and cytokine levels) and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, with nodal metastasis. Many of the newly identified genes that appear to influence LN metastasis facilitate general motility, chemotactic, or invasive properties that also increase the ability of cancer cells to disseminate and survive at distant organ sites. These new biomarkers will help predict clinical outcome and point to novel future therapies in metastatic melanoma as well as other cancers.
Keywords: melanoma; lymph node metastasis; microenvironment; inflammation; cytokines; chemokines; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; lymphangiogenesis
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Wu, X.; Takekoshi, T.; Sullivan, A.; Hwang, S.T. Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis. Cancers 2011, 3, 927-944.
Wu X, Takekoshi T, Sullivan A, Hwang ST. Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):927-944.
Wu, Xuesong; Takekoshi, Tomonori; Sullivan, Ashley; Hwang, Sam T. 2011. "Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis." Cancers 3, no. 1: 927-944.