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Cancers 2011, 3(1), 747-772; doi:10.3390/cancers3010747
Review

Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

 and *
Received: 10 January 2011; in revised form: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous cancer that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, the five-year survival rate after diagnosis of advanced (stage 3 and 4) HNSCC remains approximately 50%. One reason for the large degree of mortality associated with late stage HNSCC is the intrinsic ability of tumor cells to undergo locoregional invasion. Lymph nodes in the cervical region are the primary sites of metastasis for HNSCC, occurring before the formation of distant metastases. The presence of lymph node metastases is strongly associated with poor patient outcome, resulting in increased consideration being given to the development and implementation of anti-invasive strategies. In this review, we focus on select proteins that have been recently identified as promoters of lymph node metastasis in HNSCC. The discussed proteins are involved in a wide range of critical cellular functions, and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the factors involved in HNSCC metastasis while additionally providing increased options for consideration in the design of future therapeutic intervention strategies.
Keywords: head and neck cancer; lymph node; invasion; metastasis; biomarker head and neck cancer; lymph node; invasion; metastasis; biomarker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Walk, E.L.; Weed, S.A. Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancers 2011, 3, 747-772.

AMA Style

Walk EL, Weed SA. Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):747-772.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walk, Elyse L.; Weed, Scott A. 2011. "Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma." Cancers 3, no. 1: 747-772.



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