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Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2011; in revised form: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous cancer that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, the five-year survival rate after diagnosis of advanced (stage 3 and 4) HNSCC remains approximately 50%. One reason for the large degree of mortality associated with late stage HNSCC is the intrinsic ability of tumor cells to undergo locoregional invasion. Lymph nodes in the cervical region are the primary sites of metastasis for HNSCC, occurring before the formation of distant metastases. The presence of lymph node metastases is strongly associated with poor patient outcome, resulting in increased consideration being given to the development and implementation of anti-invasive strategies. In this review, we focus on select proteins that have been recently identified as promoters of lymph node metastasis in HNSCC. The discussed proteins are involved in a wide range of critical cellular functions, and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the factors involved in HNSCC metastasis while additionally providing increased options for consideration in the design of future therapeutic intervention strategies.
Keywords: head and neck cancer; lymph node; invasion; metastasis; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style
Walk, E.L.; Weed, S.A. Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancers 2011, 3, 747-772.
Walk EL, Weed SA. Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):747-772.
Walk, Elyse L.; Weed, Scott A. 2011. "Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma." Cancers 3, no. 1: 747-772.