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Cancers 2011, 3(1), 446-460; doi:10.3390/cancers3010446
Review

Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies

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Received: 17 December 2010; in revised form: 18 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Cancer)
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Abstract: Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; glucose intolerance; inflammation; oncogenic pathways; therapeutic target; GSK3β pancreatic cancer; glucose intolerance; inflammation; oncogenic pathways; therapeutic target; GSK3β
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Motoo, Y.; Shimasaki, T.; Ishigaki, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Kawakami, K.; Minamoto, T. Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies. Cancers 2011, 3, 446-460.

AMA Style

Motoo Y, Shimasaki T, Ishigaki Y, Nakajima H, Kawakami K, Minamoto T. Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):446-460.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motoo, Yoshiharu; Shimasaki, Takeo; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Hideo; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari. 2011. "Metabolic Disorder, Inflammation, and Deregulated Molecular Pathways Converging in Pancreatic Cancer Development: Implications for New Therapeutic Strategies." Cancers 3, no. 1: 446-460.



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