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A Quest for Initiating Cells of Head and Neck Cancer and Their Treatment
Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin, Germany
Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, China
Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany
Clinic for Gynecology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2010; in revised form: 12 July 2010 / Accepted: 13 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Abstract: The biology of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and other cancers have been related to cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Specific markers, which vary considerably depending on tumor type or tissue of origin, characterize CSC. CSC are cancer initiating, sustaining and mostly quiescent. Compared to bulk tumors, CSC are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy and may have low immunogenicity. Therapeutic targeting of CSC may improve clinical outcome. HNSCC has two main etiologies: human papillomavirus, a virus infecting epithelial stem cells, and tobacco and alcohol abuse. Here, current knowledge of HNSCC-CSC biology is reviewed and parallels to CSC of other origin are drawn where necessary for a comprehensive picture.
Keywords: metastasis; stemness; ALDH1; Sox2; Nanog; Oct3/4; human papillomavirus; immunotherapy; chemoresistance; radioresistance; epithelial mesenchymal transition
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, C.; Köberle, B.; Kaufmann, A.M.; Albers, A.E. A Quest for Initiating Cells of Head and Neck Cancer and Their Treatment. Cancers 2010, 2, 1528-1554.
Chen C, Köberle B, Kaufmann AM, Albers AE. A Quest for Initiating Cells of Head and Neck Cancer and Their Treatment. Cancers. 2010; 2(3):1528-1554.
Chen, Chao; Köberle, Beate; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E. 2010. "A Quest for Initiating Cells of Head and Neck Cancer and Their Treatment." Cancers 2, no. 3: 1528-1554.