Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Cancers, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2010), Pages 209-1378

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-58
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Identification of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor (IGF-IR) Gene Promoter-Binding Proteins in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive and ER-Depleted Breast Cancer Cells
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 233-261; doi:10.3390/cancers2020233
Received: 23 February 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. Overexpression of the IGF-IR gene is a typical feature of most primary breast cancers, whereas low IGF-IR levels are seen at advanced stages. Hence, evaluation of [...] Read more.
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. Overexpression of the IGF-IR gene is a typical feature of most primary breast cancers, whereas low IGF-IR levels are seen at advanced stages. Hence, evaluation of IGF-IR levels might be important for assessing prognosis. In the present study, we employed a proteomic approach based on DNA affinity chromatography followed either by mass spectroscopy (MS) or Western blot analysis to identify transcription factors that may associate with the IGF-IR promoter in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-depleted breast cancer cells. A biotinylated IGF-IR promoter fragment was bound to streptavidin magnetic beads and incubated with nuclear extracts of breast cancer cells. IGF-IR promoter-binding proteins were eluted with high salt and analyzed by MS and Western blots. Among the proteins that were found to bind to the IGF-IR promoter we identified zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and KLF6, ER-, p53, c-jun, and poly (ADP-ribosylation) polymerase. Furthermore, chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed the direct in vivo binding of some of these transcription factors to IGF-IR promoter DNA. The functional relevance of binding data was assessed by cotransfection experiments with specific expression vectors along with an IGF-IR promoter reporter. In summary, we identified nuclear proteins that are potentially responsible for the differential expression of the IGF-IR gene in ER-positive and ER-depleted breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Modulation of Radiation-Induced Genetic Damage by HCMV in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from a Brain Tumor Case-Control Study
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 420-435; doi:10.3390/cancers2020420
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 26 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 12 April 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection occurs early in life and viral persistence remains through life. An association between HCMV infection and malignant gliomas has been reported, suggesting that HCMV may play a role in glioma pathogenesis and could facilitate an accrual of genotoxic [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection occurs early in life and viral persistence remains through life. An association between HCMV infection and malignant gliomas has been reported, suggesting that HCMV may play a role in glioma pathogenesis and could facilitate an accrual of genotoxic damage in the presence of g-radiation; an established risk factor for gliomas. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV infection modifies the sensitivity of cells to γ-radiation-induced genetic damage. We used peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 110 glioma patients and 100 controls to measure the level of chromosome damage and cell death. We evaluated baseline, HCMV-, γ-radiation and HCMV + γ-radiation induced genetic instability with the comprehensive Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Cytome (CBMN-CYT). HCMV, similar to radiation, induced a significant increase in aberration frequency among cases and controls. PBLs infected with HCMV prior to challenge with γ-radiation led to a significant increase in aberrations as compared to baseline, γ-radiation and HCMV alone. With regards to apoptosis, glioma cases showed a lower percentage of induction following in vitro exposure to γ-radiation and HCMV infection as compared to controls. This strongly suggests that, HCMV infection enhances the sensitivity of PBLs to γ-radiation-induced genetic damage possibly through an increase in chromosome damage and decrease in apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessArticle Responsiveness of Urinary and Plasma Alkylresorcinol Metabolites to Rye Intake in Finnish Women
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 513-522; doi:10.3390/cancers2020513
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 14 April 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alkylresorcinols [ARs] have been proposed for use as biomarkers of whole-grain intake. The aim here was to examine the responsiveness of AR metabolites to rye intake. Sixty women were divided into three groups according to their rye consumption. We observed significant differences [...] Read more.
Alkylresorcinols [ARs] have been proposed for use as biomarkers of whole-grain intake. The aim here was to examine the responsiveness of AR metabolites to rye intake. Sixty women were divided into three groups according to their rye consumption. We observed significant differences between groups in plasma 3-[3,5-dihydroxyphenyl]-1-propanoic acid [DHPPA] and in urinary DHPPA and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid [DHBA]. In addition, these AR metabolites increased proportionally to rye fiber intake. We conclude that these ARs metabolites are accurate and useful biomarkers of rye fiber intake. Further studies are needed to confirm our results in larger and different populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessArticle The NK-1 Receptor Antagonist L-732,138 Induces Apoptosis and Counteracts Substance P-Related Mitogenesis in Human Melanoma Cell Lines
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 611-623; doi:10.3390/cancers2020611
Received: 17 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim [...] Read more.
It has been recently demonstrated that substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition in human melanoma cells, respectively. However, the antitumor action of the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 on such cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an antitumor action of L-732,138 against three human melanoma cell lines (COLO 858, MEL HO, COLO 679). We found that L-732,138 elicits cell growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner in the melanoma cells studied. Moreover, L-732,138 blocks SP mitogen stimulation. The specific antitumor action of L-732,138 occurred through the NK-1 receptor and melanoma cell death was by apoptosis. These findings indicate that the NK-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 could be a new antitumor agent in the treatment of human melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Acral Lentiginous Melanoma in Situ: A Diagnostic and Management Challenge
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 642-652; doi:10.3390/cancers2020642
Received: 4 March 2010 / Revised: 8 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early stage recognition of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is important for a better prognosis, but in-depth understanding and proper management of ALM in situ is complicated, because there are only a few reports, probably due to its rarity and diagnostic difficulty. We [...] Read more.
Early stage recognition of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is important for a better prognosis, but in-depth understanding and proper management of ALM in situ is complicated, because there are only a few reports, probably due to its rarity and diagnostic difficulty. We have reviewed our experience with seven patients who were diagnosed as having ALM in situ and discuss how to accurately diagnose and properly manage these rare lesions. Clinically the lesions showed black to brown discoloration of the nail with Hutchinson’s sign and hyperpigmented macules on the heel with color variegation. All the lesions showed a diffuse lentiginous pattern of melanocytic proliferation with variable level of atypism along the dermoepidermal junction. Dermoscopic findings were available in three and revealed parallel ridge patterns. Confrontation of clinical and histopathologic findings was observed in three, and the lesions were not recognized or diagnosed as ALM in situ in the first place. Excision of the primary lesion with variable operative margin was done as an initial treatment. Recurrence was observed in three patients and one developed invasive ALM and lymph node metastasis. Integration of all available information concerning the clinical presentation, histopathology, and dermoscopic findings is very important and can lead to the best classification for correct diagnosis. Lack of knowledge upon clinical course and optimal margin to control ALM in situ provokes the need for further studies with longer follow up and larger number of cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Method for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy by Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Technique in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 713-720; doi:10.3390/cancers2020713
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy using indocyanine green (ICG) technique in 411 patients with early breast cancer at three institutes. ICG, a fluorescence source, and blue dye were injected into the subareolar area to enable real-time image-guided [...] Read more.
We investigated the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy using indocyanine green (ICG) technique in 411 patients with early breast cancer at three institutes. ICG, a fluorescence source, and blue dye were injected into the subareolar area to enable real-time image-guided surgery and identification of SLN fluorescence after meticulous dissection. The subcutaneous lymphatic channels were precisely detected in all cases. SLN identification rate was 99% (408/411) with a mean of 2.3 nodes identified per patient. Thirty-nine cases (9.5%) had SLNs involved and all of them were ICG positive. Thus, the ICG technique has a high SLN identification rate comparable with that of the radioisotope method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 794-808; doi:10.3390/cancers2020794
Received: 14 April 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 7 May 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% [...] Read more.
Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessArticle Studies on the Non-Protein Thiols of a Human Prostatic Cancer Cell Line: Glutathione Content
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1092-1106; doi:10.3390/cancers2021092
Received: 26 April 2010 / Revised: 18 May 2010 / Accepted: 25 May 2010 / Published: 2 June 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low molecular weight thiol (-SH) content of a human prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCap), important to the cellular resistance to drugs and irradiation, was investigated using three forms of thiol assay each utilizing different chemistries. The composition of the mixture was [...] Read more.
The low molecular weight thiol (-SH) content of a human prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCap), important to the cellular resistance to drugs and irradiation, was investigated using three forms of thiol assay each utilizing different chemistries. The composition of the mixture was examined by derivatization of the thiols with a three-fold excess of the Ellman reagent to give mixed aromatic disulfides. The components were isolated by chromatography on C18 reverse phase silica gel followed by DE52 anion exchange separation, and then analyzed by capillary electrophoresis against prepared standards. The glutathione adduct (GSSE) and an unknown disulfide (RSSE) were the major components isolated on DE52 together with two minor ones. However, from the absorbance at 325 nm, it was found that the GSSE isolated (1.5 ± 0.2 femtomoles/cell) could only account for 28.5 ± 4.3% of the total ASF thiols. It appeared that the bulk of the thiol material had not formed a stable mixed disulfide with Ellman’s reagent, and this was confirmed by 35S labeling of the cells. A large proportion of the 35S labeled components, obtained after reaction of the ASF thiols with the Ellman reagent, did not form mixed aromatic disulfides and could therefore not be identified by this labeling method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Different Serotonergic Expression in Nevomelanocytic Tumors
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1166-1177; doi:10.3390/cancers2021166
Received: 7 April 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial [...] Read more.
The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSM), dysplastic compound nevi (DN) and benign compound nevi (BCN) were characterized with regard to their expression of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), by immunohistochemical analysis. Melanocytes in the region surrounding the tumor were found to express both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Tumor cells that immunostained positively for the different serotonergic markers were observed in the suprabasal epidermis of DN tissue and, to an even greater extent, in the case of SSM. Furthermore, some of these latter cells expressed both 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR. The level of expression of 5-HT1AR at the junctional area was lower for SSM than for DN or BCN. As the degree of atypia increased, the intensity of tumor cell staining in the dermis for 5-HT1AR and SERT declined. Vessel immunoreactivity for 5-HT2A was more intense in SSM than in BCN tissue. Round-to-dendritic cells that expressed both SERT and 5-HT1AR were seen to infiltrate into the dermal region of the tumor, this infiltration being more evident in the case of DN and SSM. These latter cells were also tryptase-positive, indicating that they are mast cells. Thus, alterations in serotonergic system may be involved in nevomelanocytic tumors and mast cells may play an important role in this connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 209-232; doi:10.3390/cancers2020209
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thioredoxin is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays crucial roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and cell survival and is highly expressed in many cancers. The tumor environment is usually under either oxidative or hypoxic stress and both stresses are known up-regulators [...] Read more.
Thioredoxin is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays crucial roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and cell survival and is highly expressed in many cancers. The tumor environment is usually under either oxidative or hypoxic stress and both stresses are known up-regulators of thioredoxin expression. These environments exist in tumors because their abnormal vascular networks result in an unstable oxygen delivery. Therefore, the oxygenation patterns in human tumors are complex, leading to hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycling. During carcinogenesis, tumor cells often become more resistant to hypoxia or oxidative stress-induced cell death and most studies on tumor oxygenation have focused on these two tumor environments. However, recent investigations suggest that the hypoxic cycling occurring within tumors plays a larger role in the contribution to tumor cell survival than either oxidative stress or hypoxia alone. Thioredoxin is known to have important roles in both these cellular responses and several studies implicate thioredoxin as a contributor to cancer progression. However, only a few studies exist that investigate the regulation of thioredoxin in the hypoxic and cycling hypoxic response in cancers. This review focuses on the role of thioredoxin in the various states of tumor oxygenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 262-273; doi:10.3390/cancers2020262
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of [...] Read more.
Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Figures

Open AccessReview Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in the Metastatic Microenvironment
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 274-304; doi:10.3390/cancers2020274
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies are the main cause of most cancer-related deaths in humans. Tumor cell heterogeneity, which associates with genomic and phenotypic instability, represents a major problem for cancer therapy. Additional factors, such as the attack of immune [...] Read more.
Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies are the main cause of most cancer-related deaths in humans. Tumor cell heterogeneity, which associates with genomic and phenotypic instability, represents a major problem for cancer therapy. Additional factors, such as the attack of immune cells or organ-specific microenvironments, also influence metastatic cell behavior and the response to therapy. Interaction of cancer and endothelial cells in capillary beds, involving mechanical contact and transient adhesion, is a critical step in the initiation of metastasis. This interaction initiates a cascade of activation pathways that involves cytokines, growth factors, bioactive lipids and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by either the cancer cell or the endothelium. Vascular endothelium-derived NO and H2O2 are cytotoxic for the cancer cells, but also help to identify some critical molecular targets that appear essential for survival of invasive metastatic cell subsets. Surviving cancer cells that extravasate and start colonization of an organ or tissue can still be attacked by macrophages and be influenced by specific intraorgan microenvironment conditions. At all steps; from the primary tumor until colonization of a distant organ; metastatic cells undergo a dynamic process of constant adaptations that may lead to the survival of highly resistant malignant cell subsets. In this sequence of molecular events both ROS and RNS play key roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Surgery Triggers Outgrowth of Latent Distant Disease in Breast Cancer: An Inconvenient Truth?
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 305-337; doi:10.3390/cancers2020305
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 25 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these [...] Read more.
We review our work over the past 14 years that began when we were first confronted with bimodal relapse patterns in two breast cancer databases from different countries. These data were unexplainable with the accepted continuous tumor growth paradigm. To explain these data, we proposed that metastatic breast cancer growth commonly includes periods of temporary dormancy at both the single cell phase and the avascular micrometastasis phase. We also suggested that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. These iatrogenic events are apparently very common in that over half of all metastatic relapses progress in that manner. Assuming this is true, there should be ample and clear evidence in clinical data. We review here the breast cancer paradigm from a variety of historical, clinical, and scientific perspectives and consider how dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy would be observed and what this would mean. Dormancy can be identified in these diverse data but most conspicuous is the sudden synchronized escape from dormancy following primary surgery. On the basis of our findings, we suggest a new paradigm for early stage breast cancer. We also suggest a new treatment that is meant to stabilize and preserve dormancy rather than attempt to kill all cancer cells as is the present strategy. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview The "Two-Faced" Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal in the Hallmarks of Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 338-363; doi:10.3390/cancers2020338
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 25 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reacytive Oxygen Species (ROS) have long been considered to be involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. However, accumulating evidence points to the benefical role of ROS. Moreover, ROS production, leading to apoptosis, is the mechanism by which many chemotherapeutic [...] Read more.
Reacytive Oxygen Species (ROS) have long been considered to be involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. However, accumulating evidence points to the benefical role of ROS. Moreover, ROS production, leading to apoptosis, is the mechanism by which many chemotherapeutic agents can act. Beside direct actions, ROS elicit lipid peroxidation, leading to the production of 4-hydroxynoneal (HNE). Interestingly, HNE also seems to have a dual behaviour with respect to cancer. In this review we present recent literature data which outline the "two-faced" character of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in carcinogenesis and in the hallmarks of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Cerebral Metastases from Malignant Melanoma: Current Treatment Strategies, Advances in Novel Therapeutics and Future Directions
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 364-375; doi:10.3390/cancers2020364
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 25 March 2010 / Accepted: 1 April 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Of all primary cancers in humans, melanoma has the highest propensity to metastasize to the brain. The prognosis of patients with this disease is extremely poor. Due to its radioresistance and poor response to existing chemotherapeutic regimes, no treatment options other than [...] Read more.
Of all primary cancers in humans, melanoma has the highest propensity to metastasize to the brain. The prognosis of patients with this disease is extremely poor. Due to its radioresistance and poor response to existing chemotherapeutic regimes, no treatment options other than surgical extirpation, when feasible, have been shown to be effective. An understanding of the underlying tumor biology therefore remains the cornerstone of offering new hope in the treatment. In this review, we comment on the current treatment strategies for melanoma brain metastases and summarize some recent experimental findings from our laboratory with potential for the development of target specific antitumor therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview The Role of Oxidative Stress in Carcinogenesis Induced by Metals and Xenobiotics
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 376-396; doi:10.3390/cancers2020376
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 2 April 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to a wide range of adverse effects on human health, toxic metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel can also promote carcinogenesis. The toxicological properties of these metals are partly related to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can [...] Read more.
In addition to a wide range of adverse effects on human health, toxic metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel can also promote carcinogenesis. The toxicological properties of these metals are partly related to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce DNA damage and trigger redox-dependent transcription factors. The precise mechanisms that induce oxidative stress are not fully understood. Further, it is not yet known whether chronic exposures to low doses of arsenic, cadmium or other metals are sufficient to induce mutations in vivo, leading to DNA repair responses and/or tumorigenesis. Oxidative stress can also be induced by environmental xenobiotics, when certain metabolites are generated that lead to the continuous release of superoxide, as long as the capacity to reduce the resulting dions (quinones) into hydroquinones is maintained. However, the specific significance of superoxide-dependent pathways to carcinogenesis is often difficult to address, because formation of DNA adducts by mutagenic metabolites can occur in parallel. Here, we will review both mechanisms and toxicological consequences of oxidative stress triggered by metals and dietary or environmental pollutants in general. Besides causing DNA damage, ROS may further induce multiple intracellular signaling pathways, notably NF-kB, JNK/SAPK/p38, as well as Erk/MAPK. These signaling routes can lead to transcriptional induction of target genes that could promote proliferation or confer apoptosis resistance to exposed cells. The significance of these additional modes depends on tissue, cell-type and is often masked by alternate oncogenic mechanisms being activated in parallel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 397-419; doi:10.3390/cancers2020397
Received: 25 February 2010 / Revised: 25 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 9 April 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This [...] Read more.
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 436-482; doi:10.3390/cancers2020436
Received: 4 March 2010 / Revised: 26 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (1307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation [...] Read more.
Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Nrf2 and NF-κB and Their Concerted Modulation in Cancer Pathogenesis and Progression
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 483-497; doi:10.3390/cancers2020483
Received: 26 February 2010 / Revised: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species, produced by oxidative stress, are implicated in the initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion of carcinogenesis through activation/suppression of redox-sensitive transcription factors. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) encodes for antioxidant and general cytoprotection genes, while NF-κB regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species, produced by oxidative stress, are implicated in the initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion of carcinogenesis through activation/suppression of redox-sensitive transcription factors. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) encodes for antioxidant and general cytoprotection genes, while NF-κB regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. A variety of anti-inflammatory or anti-carcinogenic phyto-chemicals suppress NF-κB signalling and activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway. In this review we consider the role of Nrf2 and NF-κB in cancer pathogenesis and progression, focusing on their concerted modulation and potential cross-talk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Possible DNA Viral Factors of Human Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 498-512; doi:10.3390/cancers2020498
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 3 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses are considered to be one of the high-risk factors closely related to human breast cancer. However, different studies of viruses in breast cancer present conflicting results and some of these works remain in dispute. DNA viruses, such as specific types of [...] Read more.
Viruses are considered to be one of the high-risk factors closely related to human breast cancer. However, different studies of viruses in breast cancer present conflicting results and some of these works remain in dispute. DNA viruses, such as specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8), have emerged as causal factors of some human cancers. These respective exogenous viruses and the possibility of multiple viral factors are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 523-548; doi:10.3390/cancers2020523
Received: 25 February 2010 / Revised: 1 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 14 April 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed [...] Read more.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Management of Melanoma Families
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 549-566; doi:10.3390/cancers2020549
Received: 11 February 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 14 April 2010 / Published: 16 April 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review we have aimed to focus on the clinical management of familial melanoma patients and their relatives. Along this line three major topics will be discussed: (1) management/screening of familial melanoma families: what is advised and what is the evidence [...] Read more.
In this review we have aimed to focus on the clinical management of familial melanoma patients and their relatives. Along this line three major topics will be discussed: (1) management/screening of familial melanoma families: what is advised and what is the evidence thereof; (2) variability of families worldwide with regard to clinical phenotype, including cancer spectrum and likelihood of finding germline mutations and (3) background information for clinicians on the molecular biology of familial melanoma and recent developments in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Role of Uncoupling Proteins in Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 567-591; doi:10.3390/cancers2020567
Received: 4 March 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 16 April 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins whose function is to allow the re-entry of protons to the mitochondrial matrix, by dissipating the proton gradient and, subsequently, decreasing membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due [...] Read more.
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins whose function is to allow the re-entry of protons to the mitochondrial matrix, by dissipating the proton gradient and, subsequently, decreasing membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to their pivotal role in the intersection between energy efficiency and oxidative stress, UCPs are being investigated for a potential role in cancer. In this review we compile the latest evidence showing a link between uncoupling and the carcinogenic process, paying special attention to their involvement in cancer initiation, progression and drug chemoresistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Galectins as Cancer Biomarkers
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 592-610; doi:10.3390/cancers2020592
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 2 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Galectins are a group of proteins that bind β-galactosides through evolutionarily conserved sequence elements of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Proteins similar to galectins can be found in very primitive animals such as sponges. Each galectin has an individual carbohydrate binding preference [...] Read more.
Galectins are a group of proteins that bind β-galactosides through evolutionarily conserved sequence elements of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Proteins similar to galectins can be found in very primitive animals such as sponges. Each galectin has an individual carbohydrate binding preference and can be found in cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. They also can be secreted through non-classical pathways and function extra-cellularly. Experimental and clinical data demonstrate a correlation between galectin expression and tumor progression and metastasis, and therefore, galectins have the potential to serve as reliable tumor markers. In this review, we describe the expression and role of galectins in different cancers and their clinical applications for diagnostic use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Midkine: A Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 624-641; doi:10.3390/cancers2020624
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 20 April 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since diagnosis at an early stage still remains a key issue for modern oncology and is crucial for successful cancer therapy, development of sensitive, specific, and non-invasive tumor markers, especially, in serum, is urgently needed. Midkine (MK), a plasma secreted protein, was [...] Read more.
Since diagnosis at an early stage still remains a key issue for modern oncology and is crucial for successful cancer therapy, development of sensitive, specific, and non-invasive tumor markers, especially, in serum, is urgently needed. Midkine (MK), a plasma secreted protein, was initially identified in embryonal carcinoma cells at early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Multiple studies have reported that MK plays important roles in tumor progression, and is highly expressed in various malignant tumors. Because increased serum MK concentrations also have been reported in patients with various tumors, serum MK may have the potential to become a very useful tumor marker. Here, we review and discuss the possibility and usefulness of MK as a novel tumor marker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview MicroRNAs in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 653-669; doi:10.3390/cancers2020653
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 2 April 2010 / Accepted: 15 April 2010 / Published: 21 April 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (85 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, development, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Expression profiling of miRNAs has been performed and the data show that some miRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in cancer. Several studies suggest that the expression [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, development, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Expression profiling of miRNAs has been performed and the data show that some miRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in cancer. Several studies suggest that the expression profiles of miRNAs are associated with clinical outcomes. However, the set of miRNAs with altered expressing differs depending on the type of cancer, suggesting that it is important to understand which miRNAs are related to which cancers. Therefore, this review aimed to discuss potentially crucial miRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress Induced Mechanisms in the Progression of Periodontal Diseases and Cancer: A Common Approach to Redox Homeostasis?
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 670-692; doi:10.3390/cancers2020670
Received: 10 March 2010 / Revised: 19 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 26 April 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is documented evidence of significant associations between cancer of the lung, kidney, pancreas, hematological and oral cancers and periodontal diseases of the supporting structures of the teeth. Enhanced lipid peroxidation, raised levels of TBARS and the oxidative stress marker malondealdehyde have [...] Read more.
There is documented evidence of significant associations between cancer of the lung, kidney, pancreas, hematological and oral cancers and periodontal diseases of the supporting structures of the teeth. Enhanced lipid peroxidation, raised levels of TBARS and the oxidative stress marker malondealdehyde have been detected in breast cancer with reduced antioxidant capacity, also characteristic of periodontal diseases. Antioxidants could overcome this deficit and attenuate disease progression by down regulating glutathione detoxification/redox buffering system and inhibiting key transcription factors. Periodontal disease may be a critical marker of a susceptible immune system, or initiate cancer risk with a pro-oxidant inflammatory profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Role of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Mediators in Gliomas
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 693-712; doi:10.3390/cancers2020693
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 20 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 April 2010 / Published: 26 April 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. Despite relevant progress in conventional treatments, the prognosis of such tumors remains almost invariably dismal. The genesis of gliomas is a complex, multistep process that includes cellular neoplastic transformation, [...] Read more.
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. Despite relevant progress in conventional treatments, the prognosis of such tumors remains almost invariably dismal. The genesis of gliomas is a complex, multistep process that includes cellular neoplastic transformation, resistance to apoptosis, loss of control of the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and the acquisition of invasive properties. Among a number of different biomolecular events, the existence of molecular connections between inflammation and oxidative stress pathways and the development of this cancer has been demonstrated. In particular, the tumor microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory molecules, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, promoting proliferation, survival and migration of such tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma, as well as chemokines and prostaglandins, are synthesized by resident brain cells and lymphocytes invading the affected brain tissue. Key mediators of cancer progression include nuclear factor-kappaB, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and specific microRNAs. The collective activity of these mediators is largely responsible for a pro-tumorigenic response through changes in cell proliferation, cell death, cellular senescence, DNA mutation rates, DNA methylation and angiogenesis. We provide a general overview of the connection between specific inflammation and oxidative stress pathway molecules and gliomas. The elucidation of specific effects and interactions of these factors may provide the opportunity for the identification of new target molecules leading to improved diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 721-739; doi:10.3390/cancers2020721
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 13 April 2010 / Accepted: 26 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components [...] Read more.
In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Do All Patients Require Radiotherapy after Breast-Conserving Surgery?
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 740-751; doi:10.3390/cancers2020740
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 19 April 2010 / Accepted: 26 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radiotherapy following breast conservation is routine in the treatment of breast cancer. This creates a large demand for radiotherapy services with implicit cost effects and potential morbidity to patients. Radiotherapy is administered to decrease local recurrence, but is radiotherapy required for all [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy following breast conservation is routine in the treatment of breast cancer. This creates a large demand for radiotherapy services with implicit cost effects and potential morbidity to patients. Radiotherapy is administered to decrease local recurrence, but is radiotherapy required for all breast cancers? A literature search using the Medline and Ovid databases was conducted between 1965 and 2010 using the terms ‘role of radiotherapy’, ‘early breast cancer’, and omission of radiotherapy’. Papers with clinical trials published in English in adult humans were included. Fourteen randomized controlled trials were included. Local recurrence rates range from 0.8–35% in patients in whom radiotherapy was omitted. Low risk characteristics include older age, small tumor size, no lymphovascular invasion and low to moderate grade. At present, there is no clearly defined low risk group of patients in whom radiotherapy can be omitted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview Viruses and Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 752-772; doi:10.3390/cancers2020752
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 7 April 2010 / Accepted: 26 April 2010 / Published: 30 April 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to [...] Read more.
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview In Situ Conversion of Melanoma Lesions into Autologous Vaccine by Intratumoral Injections of α-gal Glycolipids
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 773-793; doi:10.3390/cancers2020773
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autologous melanoma associated antigens (MAA) on murine melanoma cells can elicit a protective anti-tumor immune response following a variety of vaccine strategies. Most require effective uptake by antigen presenting cells (APC). APC transport and process internalized MAA for activation of anti-tumor T [...] Read more.
Autologous melanoma associated antigens (MAA) on murine melanoma cells can elicit a protective anti-tumor immune response following a variety of vaccine strategies. Most require effective uptake by antigen presenting cells (APC). APC transport and process internalized MAA for activation of anti-tumor T cells. One potential problem with clinical melanoma vaccines against autologous tumors may be that often tumor cells do not express surface markers that label them for uptake by APC. Effective uptake of melanoma cells by APC might be achieved by exploiting the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of immunoglobulins in humans. This approach has been developed in a syngeneic mouse model using mice capable of producing anti-Gal. Anti-Gal binds specifically to α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galα1-4GlcNAc-R). Injection of glycolipids carrying α-gal epitopes (α-gal glycolipids) into melanoma lesions results in glycolipid insertion into melanoma cell membranes, expression of α-gal epitopes on the tumor cells and binding of anti-Gal to these epitopes. Interaction between the Fc portions of bound anti-Gal and Fcγ receptors on APC induces effective uptake of tumor cells by APC. The resulting anti-MAA immune response can be potent enough to destroy distant micrometastases. A clinical trial is now open testing effects of intratumoral α-gal glycolipid injections in melanoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview An Overview of Biomarkers and Molecular Signatures in HCC
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 809-823; doi:10.3390/cancers2020809
Received: 19 March 2010 / Revised: 30 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 7 May 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although most HCCs seem to originate from the accumulation of genetic abnormalities induced by various risk factors, underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Long-term survival of HCC patients is [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although most HCCs seem to originate from the accumulation of genetic abnormalities induced by various risk factors, underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Long-term survival of HCC patients is also poor, partly due to HCC recurrence. Although serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level is a useful marker for the detection and monitoring of HCC, AFP levels may remain normal in the patients even with advanced HCC. To identify useful biomarkers for HCC, many studies have been conducted on molecular events such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, and gene expression. This review summarizes recent studies of potential molecular markers for diagnosis and monitoring metastasis or recurrence of HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Surgery of Primary Melanomas
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 824-841; doi:10.3390/cancers2020824
Received: 29 March 2010 / Revised: 2 May 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to [...] Read more.
Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Platelet Proteome and Tumor Dormancy: Can Platelets Content Serve as Predictive Biomarkers for Exit of Tumors from Dormancy?
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 842-858; doi:10.3390/cancers2020842
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 30 April 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the [...] Read more.
Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the possibility of timely treatment and improvement in outcomes. We have recently described the ability of platelets to selectively uptake angiogenesis regulators very early in tumor growth, and proposed their use as an early marker of malignancy. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about these processes and will discuss the possibility of using platelet content to predict presence of occult tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Role of Oxidative Stress in Stem, Cancer, and Cancer Stem Cells
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 859-884; doi:10.3390/cancers2020859
Received: 4 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The term ‘‘oxidative stress” refers to a cell’s state characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms for stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells. The concept of cancer stem cells [...] Read more.
The term ‘‘oxidative stress” refers to a cell’s state characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms for stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells. The concept of cancer stem cells arose from observations of similarities between the self-renewal mechanism of stem cells and that of cancer stem cells, but compared to normal stem cells, they are believed to have no control over the cell number. ROS have been implicated in diverse processes in various cancers, and generally the increase of ROS in cancer cells is known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Additionally, ROS have been considered as the most significant mutagens in stem cells; when elevated, blocking self-renewal and at the same time, serving as a signal stimulating stem cell differentiation. Several signaling pathways enhanced by oxidative stress are suggested to have important roles in tumorigenesis of cancer or cancer stem cells and the self-renewal ability of stem or cancer stem cells. It is now well established that mitochondria play a prominent role in apoptosis and increasing evidence supports that apoptosis and autophagy are physiological phenomena closely linked with oxidative stress. This review elucidates the effect and the mechanism of the oxidative stress on the regulation of stem, cancer, and cancer stem cells and focuses on the cell signaling cascades stimulated by oxidative stress and their mechanism in cancer stem cell formation, as very little is known about the redox status in cancer stem cells. Moreover, we explain the link between ROS and both of apoptosis and autophagy and the impact on cancer development and treatment. Better understanding of this intricate link may shed light on mechanisms that lead to better modes of cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 885-912; doi:10.3390/cancers2020885
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Predictive and Prognostic Protein Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Recommendation for Future Studies
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 913-954; doi:10.3390/cancers2020913
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 19 April 2010 / Accepted: 13 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Due to its lack of symptoms, this disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the cancer has already spread to secondary sites. While initial rates of response to first treatment is >80%, [...] Read more.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Due to its lack of symptoms, this disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the cancer has already spread to secondary sites. While initial rates of response to first treatment is >80%, the overall survival rate of patients is extremely low, mainly due to development of drug resistance. To date, there are no reliable clinical factors that can properly stratify patients for suitable chemotherapy strategies. Clinical parameters such as disease stage, tumor grade and residual disease, although helpful in the management of patients after their initial surgery to establish the first line of treatment, are not efficient enough. Accordingly, reliable markers that are independent and complementary to clinical parameters are needed for a better management of these patients. For several years, efforts to identify prognostic factors have focused on molecular markers, with a large number having been investigated. This review aims to present a summary of the recent advances in the identification of molecular biomarkers in ovarian cancer patient tissues, as well as an overview of the need and importance of molecular markers for personalized medicine in ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Systemic Therapy of Non-Resectable Metastatic Melanoma
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 955-969; doi:10.3390/cancers2020955
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In advanced metastatic melanoma (non-resectable stage III/IV), the prognosis still remains poor, with median survival times between six and twelve months. Systemic therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy, small molecules and targeted therapy. In this review, we will focus [...] Read more.
In advanced metastatic melanoma (non-resectable stage III/IV), the prognosis still remains poor, with median survival times between six and twelve months. Systemic therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy, small molecules and targeted therapy. In this review, we will focus on the various treatment modalities as well as new agents used for targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview VEGF and Pleiotrophin Modulate the Immune Profile of Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 970-988; doi:10.3390/cancers2020970
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 13 May 2010 / Accepted: 15 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of the existing vascular network to form new vessels, is required for the growth of solid tumors. For this reason, the primary stimulant of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), is an attractive target for tumor therapy. In fact, [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of the existing vascular network to form new vessels, is required for the growth of solid tumors. For this reason, the primary stimulant of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), is an attractive target for tumor therapy. In fact, there are currently numerous anti-VEGF therapies in clinical development for the treatment of various cancers, including breast cancer. VEGF signals through two primary VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. VEGFR2 is the primary angiogenic receptor, and VEGFR1 has been implicated in macrophage chemotaxis and tumor cell survival and invasion. It has only been appreciated recently that the VEGFRs are expressed not only on endothelial cells and tumor cells but also on many host immune cells. Therefore, to better understand the effects of anti-VEGF therapy it is important to consider the effects of VEGF on all cells in the tumor microenvironment, including immune cells. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genetech), which binds VEGF and inhibits interaction with VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, was approved for the treatment of metastatic HER2/NEU-negative breast cancer in 2008, however, the majority of human mammary tumors are either innately resistant or will acquire resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. This suggests that these tumors activate alternate angiogenesis pathways. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important angiogenic cytokine in breast cancer and is expressed at high levels in approximately 60% of human breast tumors. PTN functions as an angiogenic factor and promotes remodeling of the tumor microenvironment as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, PTN can have profound effects on macrophage phenotype. The present review focuses on the functions of VEGF and PTN on immune cell infiltration and function in breast cancer. Furthermore, we will discuss how anti-VEGF therapy modulates the immune cell profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 989-999; doi:10.3390/cancers2020989
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 13 April 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic [...] Read more.
Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Wnt and Related Signaling Pathways in Melanomagenesis
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1000-1012; doi:10.3390/cancers2021000
Received: 27 April 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the pivotal roles of morphogen pathways including Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and BMP pathways in the development of the neural crest lineage, it is not surprising that these signaling networks have also been implicated in the biology of malignant melanoma. Understanding the [...] Read more.
Given the pivotal roles of morphogen pathways including Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and BMP pathways in the development of the neural crest lineage, it is not surprising that these signaling networks have also been implicated in the biology of malignant melanoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which these pathways can alter cell fate and other biological properties in tumor cells will be essential for determining whether the therapeutic targeting of these pathways has a potential role in melanoma treatment. This review highlights some of the recent findings with regards to how morphogen signaling may regulate melanoma cell biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity of Cannabinoids on Gliomas: Role for Oxidative Stress
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1013-1026; doi:10.3390/cancers2021013
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 17 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of [...] Read more.
Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Blood-Based Biomarkers for the Optimization of Anti-Angiogenic Therapies
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1027-1039; doi:10.3390/cancers2021027
Received: 29 March 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dependence of tumor growth and metastasis on blood vessels makes tumor angiogenesis a rational target for therapy. Strategies have been pursued to inhibit neovascularization and to destroy existing tumor vessels, or both. These include direct targeting of endothelial cells, and indirect [...] Read more.
The dependence of tumor growth and metastasis on blood vessels makes tumor angiogenesis a rational target for therapy. Strategies have been pursued to inhibit neovascularization and to destroy existing tumor vessels, or both. These include direct targeting of endothelial cells, and indirect targeting by inhibiting the release of proangiogenic growth factors by cancer or stromal cells. Many patients benefit from antiangiogenic therapies; thus, development of noninvasive biomarkers of disease response and relapse is a crucial objective to aid in their management. A number of non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. We review currently available candidate biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Including these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, and prediction of individual response. This has important consequences for the clinical use of angiogenesis inhibitors and for drug discovery, not only for optimizing the treatment of cancer, but possibly also for developing therapeutic approaches for various other diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1040-1065; doi:10.3390/cancers2021040
Received: 19 March 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification [...] Read more.
Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal-like breast cancer biomarker research. While a number of biomarkers show promise for future clinical application, the next logical step is a comprehensive investigation of all biomarkers against a gene expression profile gold standard for breast cancer subtype assignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Reinventing Diagnostics for Personalized Therapy in Oncology
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1066-1091; doi:10.3390/cancers2021066
Received: 6 April 2010 / Revised: 15 May 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published: 2 June 2010
PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human cancers are still diagnosed and classified using the light microscope. The criteria are based upon morphologic observations by pathologists and tend to be subject to interobserver variation. In preoperative biopsies of non-small cell lung cancers, the diagnostic concordance, even amongst experienced [...] Read more.
Human cancers are still diagnosed and classified using the light microscope. The criteria are based upon morphologic observations by pathologists and tend to be subject to interobserver variation. In preoperative biopsies of non-small cell lung cancers, the diagnostic concordance, even amongst experienced pulmonary pathologists, is no better than a coin-toss. Only 25% of cancer patients, on average, benefit from therapy as most therapies do not account for individual factors that influence response or outcome. Unsuccessful first line therapy costs Canada CAN$1.2 billion for the top 14 cancer types, and this extrapolates to $90 billion globally. The availability of accurate drug selection for personalized therapy could better allocate these precious resources to the right therapies. This wasteful situation is beginning to change with the completion of the human genome sequencing project and with the increasing availability of targeted therapies. Both factors are giving rise to attempts to correlate tumor characteristics and response to specific adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. Static cancer classification and grading systems need to be replaced by functional classification systems that not only account for intra- and inter- tumor heterogeneity, but which also allow for the selection of the correct chemotherapeutic compounds for the individual patient. In this review, the examples of lung and breast cancer are used to illustrate the issues to be addressed in the coming years, as well as the emerging technologies that have great promise in enabling personalized therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Serum Tumor Markers in Pancreatic Cancer—Recent Discoveries
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1107-1124; doi:10.3390/cancers2021107
Received: 24 March 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 2 June 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low prevalence of pancreatic cancer remains an obstacle to the development of effective screening tools in an asymptomatic population. However, development of effective serologic markers still offers the potential for improvement of diagnostic capabilities, especially for subpopulations of patients with high [...] Read more.
The low prevalence of pancreatic cancer remains an obstacle to the development of effective screening tools in an asymptomatic population. However, development of effective serologic markers still offers the potential for improvement of diagnostic capabilities, especially for subpopulations of patients with high risk for pancreatic cancer. The accurate identification of patients with pancreatic cancer and the exclusion of disease in those with benign disorders remain important goals. While clinical experience largely dismissed many candidate markers as useful markers of pancreatic cancer, CA19-9 continues to show promise. The present review highlights the development and the properties of different tumor markers in pancreatic cancer and their impact on the diagnostic and treatment of this aggressive disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Cancer)
Open AccessReview Markers for Detection of Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1125-1154; doi:10.3390/cancers2021125
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 4 June 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early detection of prostate cancer is problematic, not just because of uncertainly whether a diagnosis will benefit an individual patient, but also as a result of the imprecise and invasive nature of establishing a diagnosis by biopsy. Despite its low sensitivity and [...] Read more.
Early detection of prostate cancer is problematic, not just because of uncertainly whether a diagnosis will benefit an individual patient, but also as a result of the imprecise and invasive nature of establishing a diagnosis by biopsy. Despite its low sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients harbouring prostate cancer, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has become established as the most reliable and widely-used diagnostic marker for this condition. In its wake, many other markers have been described and evaluated. This review focuses on the supporting evidence for the most prominent of these for detection and also for predicting outcome in prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Connection between the Presence of Melanoma and Changes in Fibre Diffraction Patterns
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1155-1165; doi:10.3390/cancers2021155
Received: 5 May 2010 / Revised: 3 June 2010 / Accepted: 4 June 2010 / Published: 4 June 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An accurate diagnosis of melanomas at an early stage correlates directly with a better prognosis. However the incidence of melanoma is still increasing along with the number of related deaths. Melanoma cells grow extremely fast, with the result that many patients present [...] Read more.
An accurate diagnosis of melanomas at an early stage correlates directly with a better prognosis. However the incidence of melanoma is still increasing along with the number of related deaths. Melanoma cells grow extremely fast, with the result that many patients present after metastasis has occurred, too late for effective treatment. This paper describes the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns of skin that indicate the presence of a melanoma. Identification of these changes would provide an alternative early low-cost, reliable diagnostic test which could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities using rotating anode X-ray generators or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle x-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Figures

Open AccessReview Outpatient Follow-up and Secondary Prevention for Melanoma Patients
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1178-1197; doi:10.3390/cancers2021178
Received: 23 April 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health care providers and their patients jointly participate in melanoma prevention, surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment. This paper reviews screening and follow-up strategies for patients who have been diagnosed with melanoma, based on current available evidence, and focuses on methods to assess disease [...] Read more.
Health care providers and their patients jointly participate in melanoma prevention, surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment. This paper reviews screening and follow-up strategies for patients who have been diagnosed with melanoma, based on current available evidence, and focuses on methods to assess disease recurrence and second primary occurrence. Secondary prevention, including the roles of behavioral modification and chemoprevention are also reviewed. The role of follow-up dermatologist consultation, with focused physical examinations complemented by dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and/or full-body mapping is discussed. Furthermore, we address the inclusion of routine imaging and laboratory assessment as components of follow-up and monitoring of advanced stage melanoma. The role of physicians in addressing the psychosocial stresses associated with a diagnosis of melanoma is reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1198-1220; doi:10.3390/cancers2021198
Received: 6 May 2010 / Revised: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 1 June 2010 / Published: 8 June 2010
PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Significance of Micrometastases: Circulating Tumor Cells and Disseminated Tumor Cells in Early Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1221-1235; doi:10.3390/cancers2021221
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 26 May 2010 / Accepted: 4 June 2010 / Published: 8 June 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adjuvant systemic therapy targets minimal residual disease. Our current clinical approach in the adjuvant setting is to presume, rather than confirm, the presence of minimal residual disease. Based on assessment of the primary tumor, we estimate an individual’s recurrence risk. Subsequent treatment [...] Read more.
Adjuvant systemic therapy targets minimal residual disease. Our current clinical approach in the adjuvant setting is to presume, rather than confirm, the presence of minimal residual disease. Based on assessment of the primary tumor, we estimate an individual’s recurrence risk. Subsequent treatment decisions are based on characteristics of the primary tumor, with the presumption of consistent biology and treatment sensitivity between micrometastases and the primary lesion. An alternative approach is to identify micrometastatic disease. Detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow and circulating tumor cells (CTC) from peripheral blood collection may offer quantification and biocharacterization of residual disease. This paper will review the prognostic and predictive potential of micrometastatic disease in early breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1236-1250; doi:10.3390/cancers2021236
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual [...] Read more.
The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1251-1287; doi:10.3390/cancers2021251
Received: 27 May 2010 / Revised: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (5241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Interfering with ROS Metabolism in Cancer Cells: The Potential Role of Quercetin
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1288-1311; doi:10.3390/cancers2021288
Received: 6 May 2010 / Revised: 8 June 2010 / Accepted: 11 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A main feature of cancer cells, when compared to normal ones, is a persistent pro-oxidative state that leads to an intrinsic oxidative stress. Cancer cells have higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells, and ROS are, in turn, responsible [...] Read more.
A main feature of cancer cells, when compared to normal ones, is a persistent pro-oxidative state that leads to an intrinsic oxidative stress. Cancer cells have higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells, and ROS are, in turn, responsible for the maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Persistent ROS stress may induce adaptive stress responses, enabling cancer cells to survive with high levels of ROS and maintain cellular viability. However, excessive ROS levels render cancer cells highly susceptible to quercetin, one of the main dietary flavonoids. Quercetin depletes intracellular glutathione and increases intracellular ROS to a level that can cause cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection of Gynecologic Cancers
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1312-1327; doi:10.3390/cancers2021312
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers are three of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive organs. CA 125, historically the most reliable serum marker for ovarian cancer, is elevated in 50% of early-stage ovarian tumors. For endometrial cancers, there are no [...] Read more.
Ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers are three of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive organs. CA 125, historically the most reliable serum marker for ovarian cancer, is elevated in 50% of early-stage ovarian tumors. For endometrial cancers, there are no established serum markers. SCC, which is the best studied serum marker for squamous cell carcinomas, has been unreliable; SCC is elevated in cervical squamous cell carcinomas ranging from 28–85% of the time. Recent proteomics-based analyses show great promise for the discovery of new and more useful biomarkers. In this review, we will discuss the currently utilized serum tumor markers for gynecologic cancers and the novel biomarkers that are now under investigation. Full article
Open AccessReview Alterations of MicroRNAs in Solid Cancers and Their Prognostic Value
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1328-1353; doi:10.3390/cancers2021328
Received: 23 April 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, naturally abundant, small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. Each miRNA represses the protein expression of several coding genes in a manner proportional to the sequence complementarity with [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, naturally abundant, small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. Each miRNA represses the protein expression of several coding genes in a manner proportional to the sequence complementarity with the target transcripts. MicroRNAs play key regulatory roles in organismal development and homeostasis. They control fundamental biological processes, such as stem-cell regulation and cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. Differential miRNA expression is found in malignant tumors in comparison to normal tissue counterparts. This indicates that miRNA deregulation contributes to the initiation and progression of cancer. Currently, miRNA expression signatures are being rigorously investigated in various tumor types, with the aim of developing novel, efficient biomarkers that can improve clinical management of cancer patients. This review discusses deregulated miRNAs in solid tumors, and focuses on their emerging prognostic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview The Nrf1 and Nrf2 Balance in Oxidative Stress Regulation and Androgen Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 1354-1378; doi:10.3390/cancers2021354
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 18 June 2010 / Accepted: 21 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling has recently sparked a surge of interest as being the molecular underpinning for cancer cell survival, but the precise mechanisms involved have not been completely elucidated. This review covers the possible roles of two ROS-induced transcription factors, [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling has recently sparked a surge of interest as being the molecular underpinning for cancer cell survival, but the precise mechanisms involved have not been completely elucidated. This review covers the possible roles of two ROS-induced transcription factors, Nrf1 and Nrf2, and the antioxidant proteins peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1) and Thioredoxin-1 (Txn-1) in modulating AR expression and signaling in aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) cells. In androgen independent (AI) C4-2B cells, in comparison to the parental androgen dependent (AD) LNCaP cells, we present evidence of high Nrf1 and Prx-1 expression and low Nrf2 expression in these aggressive PCa cells. Furthermore, in DHT treated C4-2B cells, increased expression of the p65 (active) isoform of Nrf1 correlated with enhanced AR transactivation. Our findings implicate a crucial balance of Nrf1 and Nrf2 signaling in regulating AR activity in AI-PCa cells. Here we will discuss how understanding the mechanisms by which oxidative stress may affect AR signaling may aid in developing novel therapies for AI-PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Cancers Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
cancers@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Cancers
Back to Top