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Cancers 2018, 10(9), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090312

Serial MRI Imaging Reveals Minimal Impact of Ketogenic Diet on Established Liver Tumor Growth

1
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
3
Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
4
Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract

Rodent models of liver tumorigenesis have reproducibly shown that dietary sugar intake is a powerful driver of liver tumor initiation and growth. In contrast, dietary sugar restriction with ketogenic diets or calorie restriction generally prevents liver tumor formation. Ketogenic diet is viewed positively as a therapeutic adjuvant; however, most ketogenic diet studies described to date have been performed in prevention mode rather than treatment mode. Therefore, it remains unclear whether a ketogenic diet can be administered in late stages of disease to stall or reverse liver tumor growth. To model the clinically relevant treatment mode, we administered a ketogenic diet to mice after liver tumor initiation and monitored tumor growth by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 2 weeks of age and fed a chow diet until 39 weeks of age, when they underwent MRI imaging to detect liver tumors. Mice were then randomised into two groups and fed either a chow diet or switched to a ketogenic diet from 40–48 weeks of age. Serial MRIs were performed at 44 and 48 weeks of age. All mice had tumors at study completion and there were no differences in total tumor burden between diet groups. Although a ketogenic diet has marked protective effects against DEN-induced liver tumourigenesis in this mouse model, these data demonstrate that ketogenic diet cannot stop the progression of established liver tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cancer; ketosis; diethylnitrosamine liver cancer; ketosis; diethylnitrosamine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Byrne, F.L.; Hargett, S.R.; Lahiri, S.; Roy, R.J.; Berr, S.S.; Caldwell, S.H.; Hoehn, K.L. Serial MRI Imaging Reveals Minimal Impact of Ketogenic Diet on Established Liver Tumor Growth. Cancers 2018, 10, 312.

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