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Micromachines 2017, 8(9), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8090285

Custom-Designed Glassy Carbon Tips for Atomic Force Microscopy

1
Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76334 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
2
Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstrasse 5, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Materials for MEMS/NEMS)
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Abstract

Glassy carbon is a graphenic form of elemental carbon obtained from pyrolysis of carbon-rich precursor polymers that can be patterned using various lithographic techniques. It is electrically and thermally conductive, mechanically strong, light, corrosion resistant and easy to functionalize. These properties render it very suitable for Carbon-microelectromechanical systems (Carbon-MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (Carbon-NEMS) applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of fully operational, microfabricated glassy carbon nano-tips for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). These tips are 3D-printed on to micro-machined silicon cantilevers by Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) of acrylate-based photopolymers (commercially known as IP-series resists), followed by their carbonization employing controlled pyrolysis, which shrinks the patterned structure by ≥98% in volume. Tip performance and robustness during contact and dynamic AFM modes are validated by morphology and wear tests. The design and pyrolysis process optimization performed for this work indicate which parameters require special attention when IP-series polymers are used for the fabrication of Carbon-MEMS and NEMS. Microstructural characterization of the resulting material confirms that it features a frozen percolated network of graphene sheets accompanied by disordered carbon and voids, similar to typical glassy carbons. The presented facile fabrication method can be employed for obtaining a variety of 3D glassy carbon nanostructures starting from the stereolithographic designs provided by the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: AFM tip; Carbon-NEMS; glassy carbon; pyrolysis; two-photon polymerization AFM tip; Carbon-NEMS; glassy carbon; pyrolysis; two-photon polymerization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zakhurdaeva, A.; Dietrich, P.-I.; Hölscher, H.; Koos, C.; Korvink, J.G.; Sharma, S. Custom-Designed Glassy Carbon Tips for Atomic Force Microscopy. Micromachines 2017, 8, 285.

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