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Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 228; doi:10.3390/mi8070228

Rapid Nucleic Acid Extraction and Purification Using a Miniature Ultrasonic Technique

1
Nano and Micro Sensors Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA
2
Imagion Biosystems, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA
3
MEMS Technologies Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA
4
Bioenergy and Defense Technologies Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA
5
Physics Based Microsystems Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Microfluidic Methodology for the Analysis of DNA)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3275 KB, uploaded 24 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Miniature ultrasonic lysis for biological sample preparation is a promising technique for efficient and rapid extraction of nucleic acids and proteins from a wide variety of biological sources. Acoustic methods achieve rapid, unbiased, and efficacious disruption of cellular membranes while avoiding the use of harsh chemicals and enzymes, which interfere with detection assays. In this work, a miniature acoustic nucleic acid extraction system is presented. Using a miniature bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array based on 36° Y-cut lithium niobate, acoustic waves were coupled into disposable laminate-based microfluidic cartridges. To verify the lysing effectiveness, the amount of liberated ATP and the cell viability were measured and compared to untreated samples. The relationship between input power, energy dose, flow-rate, and lysing efficiency were determined. DNA was purified on-chip using three approaches implemented in the cartridges: a silica-based sol-gel silica-bead filled microchannel, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, and Nafion-coated electrodes. Using E. coli, the lysing dose defined as ATP released per joule was 2.2× greater, releasing 6.1× more ATP for the miniature BAW array compared to a bench-top acoustic lysis system. An electric field-based nucleic acid purification approach using Nafion films yielded an extraction efficiency of 69.2% in 10 min for 50 µL samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic lysis; microfluidic; nucleic acids; extraction; purification; separation; Point-of-Care acoustic lysis; microfluidic; nucleic acids; extraction; purification; separation; Point-of-Care
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Branch, D.W.; Vreeland, E.C.; McClain, J.L.; Murton, J.K.; James, C.D.; Achyuthan, K.E. Rapid Nucleic Acid Extraction and Purification Using a Miniature Ultrasonic Technique. Micromachines 2017, 8, 228.

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