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Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 101; doi:10.3390/mi8040101

Two-Photon Polymerization Metrology: Characterization Methods of Mechanisms and Microstructures

Chemistry Department, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504, USA
Technology and Applications Center, Newport Corporation, Irvine, CA 92606, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Osellame and Rebeca Martínez Vázquez
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafast Laser Fabrication for Lab-on-a-Chip)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6075 KB, uploaded 27 March 2017]   |  


The ability to create complex three-dimensional microstructures has reached an unprecedented level of sophistication in the last 15 years. For the most part, this is the result of a steady development of the additive manufacturing technique named two-photon polymerization (TPP). In a short amount of time, TPP has gone from being a microfabrication novelty employed largely by laser specialists to a useful tool in the hands of scientists and engineers working in a wide range of research fields including microfluidics. When used in combination with traditional microfabrication processes, TPP can be employed to add unique three-dimensional components to planar platforms, thus enabling the realization of lab-on-a-chip solutions otherwise impossible to create. To take full advantage of TPP, an in-depth understanding is required of the materials photochemistry and the fabricated microstructures’ mechanical and chemical properties. Thus, we review methods developed so far to investigate the underling mechanism involved during TPP and analytical methods employed to characterize TPP microstructures. Furthermore, we will discuss potential opportunities for using optofluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems for TPP metrology. View Full-Text
Keywords: two-photon polymerization; femtosecond laser direct-writing; microfluidics; Raman spectroscopy; nonlinear optical microscopy two-photon polymerization; femtosecond laser direct-writing; microfluidics; Raman spectroscopy; nonlinear optical microscopy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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LaFratta, C.N.; Baldacchini, T. Two-Photon Polymerization Metrology: Characterization Methods of Mechanisms and Microstructures. Micromachines 2017, 8, 101.

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