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Micromachines 2016, 7(9), 150; doi:10.3390/mi7090150

Controllable Acoustic Mixing of Fluids in Microchannels for the Fabrication of Therapeutic Nanoparticles

1
Chair of Experimental Physics I, University of Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, 86519 Augsburg, Germany
2
Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Schellingstraße 4, 80799 Munich, Germany
3
Augsburg Center for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), University of Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 2, 86159 Augsburg, Germany
4
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 81377 Munich, Germany
5
Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc Desmulliez, Anne Bernassau and Baixin Chen
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3923 KB, uploaded 2 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Fifteen years ago, surface acoustic waves (SAW) were found to be able to drive fluids and numerous applications in microfluidics have been developed since. Here, we review the progress made and report on new approaches in setting-up microfluidic, continuous flow acoustic mixing. In a microchannel, chaotic advection is achieved by generation of a SAW driven fluid jet perpendicular to the mean flow direction. Using a high speed video camera and particle image velocimetry, we measure the flow velocities and show that mixing is achieved in a particularly controllable and fast way. The mixing quality is determined as a function of system parameters: SAW power, volume flux and fluid viscosity. Exploring the parameter space of mixing provides a practical guide for acoustic mixing in microchannels and allows for adopting conditions to different solvents, as e.g., required for the generation of nanoscale particles from alcoholic phases. We exemplarily demonstrate the potential of SAW based continuous flow mixing for the production of therapeutic nucleic acid nanoparticles assembled from polymer and lipid solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic mixing; lab-on-a-chip; surface acoustic waves; acoustic streaming; polyplexes; lipoplexes; siRNA; plasmid DNA (pDNA); polyethylenimine (PEI); mono-nucleic acid/lipid particles (mNALPs); therapeutic nanoparticles microfluidic mixing; lab-on-a-chip; surface acoustic waves; acoustic streaming; polyplexes; lipoplexes; siRNA; plasmid DNA (pDNA); polyethylenimine (PEI); mono-nucleic acid/lipid particles (mNALPs); therapeutic nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Westerhausen, C.; Schnitzler, L.G.; Wendel, D.; Krzysztoń, R.; Lächelt, U.; Wagner, E.; Rädler, J.O.; Wixforth, A. Controllable Acoustic Mixing of Fluids in Microchannels for the Fabrication of Therapeutic Nanoparticles. Micromachines 2016, 7, 150.

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