Next Article in Journal
Full Polymer Dielectric Elastomeric Actuators (DEA) Functionalised with Carbon Nanotubes and High-K Ceramics
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources
Previous Article in Journal
Deformability-Based Electrokinetic Particle Separation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Micromachines 2016, 7(10), 171;

A New Method for a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Using a Backtracking Search Algorithm-Based PI Voltage Controller

Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hiroshi Toshiyoshi and Chang-Hyeon Ji
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 28 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Energy Harvesters)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5587 KB, uploaded 23 September 2016]   |  


This paper presents a new method for a vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system using a backtracking search algorithm (BSA)-based proportional-integral (PI) voltage controller. This technique eliminates the exhaustive conventional trial-and-error procedure for obtaining optimized parameter values of proportional gain (Kp), and integral gain (Ki) for PI voltage controllers. The generated estimate values of Kp and Ki are executed in the PI voltage controller that is developed through the BSA optimization technique. In this study, mean absolute error (MAE) is used as an objective function to minimize output error for a piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS). The model for the PEHS is designed and analyzed using the BSA optimization technique. The BSA-based PI voltage controller of the PEHS produces a significant improvement in minimizing the output error of the converter and a robust, regulated pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal to convert a MOSFET switch, with the best response in terms of rise time and settling time under various load conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; optimization; micro devices; low voltage; controller energy harvesting; optimization; micro devices; low voltage; controller

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sarker, M.R.; Mohamed, A.; Mohamed, R. A New Method for a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Using a Backtracking Search Algorithm-Based PI Voltage Controller. Micromachines 2016, 7, 171.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Micromachines EISSN 2072-666X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top