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Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 660-673; doi:10.3390/mi6060660

On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeong-Bong Lee
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8441 KB, uploaded 3 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip) and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is simultaneously measured using an on-chip force sensor composed of a hollow folded beam and probe structure. In order to measure the cellular characteristics in further detail, a sub-pixel level of resolution of probe position is required. Therefore, we utilize the phase detection of moiré fringe. Using this method, the experimental resolution of the probe position reaches 42 nm. This is approximately ten times smaller than the optical wavelength, which is the limit of sharp imaging with a microscope. Calibration of the force sensor is also important in accurately measuring cellular reaction forces. We calibrated the spring constant from the frequency response, by the proposed sensing method of the probe position. As a representative of mechanical characteristics, we measured the elastic modulus of Madin-Darby Cannie Kidney (MDCK) cells. In spite of the rigid spring constant, the resolution and sensitivity were twice that achieved in our previous study. Unique cellular characteristics can be elucidated by the improvements in sensing resolution and accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: moiré fringe; lab-on-a-chip; cellular measurement; force sensing moiré fringe; lab-on-a-chip; cellular measurement; force sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sugiura, H.; Sakuma, S.; Kaneko, M.; Arai, F. On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe. Micromachines 2015, 6, 660-673.

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