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Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 1106-1134; doi:10.3390/mi5041106

Femtosecond Laser 3D Fabrication in Porous Glass for Micro- and Nanofluidic Applications

State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800, China
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Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Micro- and Nano- Processing)

Abstract

The creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) fluidic systems composed of hollow micro- and nanostructures embedded in transparent substrates has attracted significant attention from both scientific and applied research communities. However, it is by now still a formidable challenge to build 3D micro- and nanofluidic structures with arbitrary configurations using conventional planar lithographic fabrication methods. As a direct and maskless fabrication technique, femtosecond laser micromachining provides a straightforward approach for high-precision, spatially-selective, modification inside transparent materials through nonlinear optical absorption. In this paper, we demonstrate rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio micro- and/or nanofluidic structures with various 3D configurations by femtosecond laser direct writing in porous glass substrates. Based on this approach, we demonstrate several functional micro- and nanofluidic devices including a 3D passive microfluidic mixer, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis chip, and an integrated micro-nanofluidic system for single DNA analysis. The possible mechanisms behind the formation of high-aspect-ratio micro- and nanochannels are also discussed. This technology offers new opportunities to develop novel 3D micro-nanofluidic systems for a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: femtosecond laser; 3D fabrication; microfluidics; nanofluidics; porous glass femtosecond laser; 3D fabrication; microfluidics; nanofluidics; porous glass
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, Y.; Cheng, Y. Femtosecond Laser 3D Fabrication in Porous Glass for Micro- and Nanofluidic Applications. Micromachines 2014, 5, 1106-1134.

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