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Micromachines 2014, 5(2), 239-262; doi:10.3390/mi5020239

The Five Ws (and one H) of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces in Medicine

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 16163 Genova, Italy
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Department of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microlenses)
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Super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are bio-inspired, artificial microfabricated interfaces, in which a pattern of cylindrical micropillars is modified to incorporate details at the nanoscale. For those systems, the integration of different scales translates into superior properties, including the ability of manipulating biological solutions. The five Ws, five Ws and one H or the six Ws (6W), are questions, whose answers are considered basic in information-gathering. They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject. According to the principle of the six Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an interrogative word: who, why, what, where, when, how. Each question should have a factual answer. In what follows, SHSs and some of the most promising applications thereof are reviewed following the scheme of the 6W. We will show how these surfaces can be integrated into bio-photonic devices for the identification and detection of a single molecule. We will describe how SHSs and nanoporous silicon matrices can be combined to yield devices with the capability of harvesting small molecules, where the cut-off size can be adequately controlled. We will describe how this concept is utilized for obtaining a direct TEM image of a DNA molecule. View Full-Text
Keywords: super-hydrophobic surfaces; single molecule detection; biosensors; nano-optics; nanosensors; nanoporous silicon; electroless deposition super-hydrophobic surfaces; single molecule detection; biosensors; nano-optics; nanosensors; nanoporous silicon; electroless deposition

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gentile, F.; Coluccio, M.L.; Limongi, T.; Perozziello, G.; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, E. The Five Ws (and one H) of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces in Medicine. Micromachines 2014, 5, 239-262.

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