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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9090283

Zearalenone (ZEN) and Its Influence on Regulation of Gene Expression in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Liver Tissue

Institute of Natural Resource Sciences (IUNR), Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Grüental, P.O. Box, CH-8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequently-occurring mycotoxin in both animal and fish feeds. In order to characterize its effects on carp, three groups of fish were fed for 28 days with feeds contaminated with three different levels of ZEN (low: 332 µg kg−1, medium: 621 µg kg−1, and high: 797 µg kg−1 feed). The reversibility of the effects of ZEN was assessed by feeding all of the groups with uncontaminated feed for a further 14 days. Gene expression of immune genes in the liver tissue of the fish was analysed, revealing reduced expressions of immune, antioxidative, and estrogen-related genes after the fish had been exposed to ZEN. However, the expression of vacuole-type H+ ATPase increased substantially with ZEN exposure, thus supporting the previously-reported sensitivity of lysosomal functions to ZEN. Feeding the fish with a ZEN-free diet for a further two weeks changed the effects of ZEN on the expression of some genes, including the expressions of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and arginase 2, which were not influenced after four weeks of treatment, but showed lower values after the recovery phase in fish previously treated with ZEN compared with the control group. In summary, this study confirmed the broad effects of ZEN on different essential functions in carp and suggests that the current maximum allowable levels in compound feed are too high to prevent damage to fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; immune system; gene expression; aquaculture mycotoxin; immune system; gene expression; aquaculture
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Pietsch, C. Zearalenone (ZEN) and Its Influence on Regulation of Gene Expression in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Liver Tissue. Toxins 2017, 9, 283.

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