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Toxins 2017, 9(8), 244; doi:10.3390/toxins9080244

Enzymatic and Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Bothrops lanceolatus Venom: Relevance for Envenomation

1
Prevor Laboratory, Moulin de Verville, Valmondois 95760, France
2
Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
3
Trousseau Hospital, Paris 75012, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Syed A. Ali
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Bothrops lanceolatus, commonly named ‘Fer-de-Lance’, is an endemic snake of the French Caribbean Island of Martinique. Envenomations by B. lanceolatus present clinical aspects characterized by systemic thrombotic syndrome and important local inflammation, involving edema and pain but limited hemorrhage. To investigate mechanisms of venom-induced inflammation, B. lanceolatus venom was characterized, its cross-reactivity with bothropic antivenom explored, its cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes and vascular cells, and the production of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed. We used electrophoretic separation, zymography, colorimetric or fluorimetric enzymatic assays, and immunochemical assays. Therapeutic South American bothropic antivenom cross-reacted with B. lanceolatus venom and completely or partially abolished its PLA2, hyaluronidase, and proteolytic activities, as well as its cytotoxicity for keratinocytes. The substrate specificity of B. lanceolatus venom proteases was emphasized. B. lanceolatus venom cytotoxicity was compared to the B. jararaca venom. Both venoms were highly cytotoxic for keratinocytes (HaCaT), whereas B. lanceolatus venom showed particularly low toxicity for endothelial cells (EAhy926). Patterns of cytokine and chemokine production by cells exposed to the venoms were highly pro-inflammatory. Thus, the results presented here show that B. lanceolatus venom toxins share important antigenic similarities with South American Bothrops species toxins, although their proteases have acquired particular substrate specificity. Moreover, the venom displays important cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory action on human cell types such as keratinocytes and endothelial cells, which are important players in the local and systemic compartments affected by the envenomation. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; Bothrops lanceolatus; toxic activities; antivenom snake venom; Bothrops lanceolatus; toxic activities; antivenom
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delafontaine, M.; Villas-Boas, I.M.; Mathieu, L.; Josset, P.; Blomet, J.; Tambourgi, D.V. Enzymatic and Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Bothrops lanceolatus Venom: Relevance for Envenomation. Toxins 2017, 9, 244.

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