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Toxins 2017, 9(8), 241; doi:10.3390/toxins9080241

Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar

1
Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
2
National Health Laboratory, Department of Health, Yangon 11191, Myanmar
3
University of Medical Technology, Mandalay 05072, Myanmar
4
University of Medicine 2, Yangon 11031, Myanmar
5
New Yangon General Hospital, Yangon 11191, Myanmar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Rummel
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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Abstract

Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl-positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus, a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl-negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw. The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl, as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus argenteus; food handler; Myanmar; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; enterotoxin; enterotoxin-like gene; TSST-1 Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus argenteus; food handler; Myanmar; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; enterotoxin; enterotoxin-like gene; TSST-1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aung, M.S.; San, T.; Aye, M.M.; Mya, S.; Maw, W.W.; Zan, K.N.; Htut, W.H.W.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Kobayashi, N. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar. Toxins 2017, 9, 241.

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