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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 210; doi:10.3390/toxins9070210

Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A–F by Penicillium crustosum

1
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 45, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Münster, Germany
3
Department of Safety and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institute, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, 76121 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: HJ (Ine) van der Fels‐Klerx
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A–F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A–F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A–F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Penicillium crustosum; penitrem; flash chromatography; stress factor; cheese model medium; micro-scale extraction; liquid chromatography Penicillium crustosum; penitrem; flash chromatography; stress factor; cheese model medium; micro-scale extraction; liquid chromatography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalinina, S.A.; Jagels, A.; Cramer, B.; Geisen, R.; Humpf, H.-U. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A–F by Penicillium crustosum. Toxins 2017, 9, 210.

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