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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 194; doi:10.3390/toxins9060194

Occurrence of Penicillium brocae and Penicillium citreonigrum, which Produce a Mutagenic Metabolite and a Mycotoxin Citreoviridin, Respectively, in Selected Commercially Available Rice Grains in Thailand

1
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71, Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5201, Japan
2
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71, Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5201, Japan
3
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
4
Agilent Technologies, Japan, Ltd., 9-1 Takakura-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3618 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Commercially available rice grains in Thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate Penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. Penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. Among them, one Penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six Penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. The P. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. Mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was not detected in any samples, but one out of 10 rice samples tested was positive for aflatoxin B1 at a level of 5.9 μg/kg. An Ames test revealed that methanol extracts from rice grains inoculated with selected P. brocae isolates were positive for strains TA100 and YG7108 of Salmonella typhimurium, suggesting the presence of base-pair substitution and DNA alkylation mutagens. Our data obtained here demonstrated that aflatoxin B1 and toxic P. citreonigrum were present on domestic rice grains in Thailand, although limited samples were tested. Penicillium brocae, which may produce mutagenic metabolites, was isolated for the first time from the surface of Thai rice grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; Penicillium brocae; Ames test; citreoviridin; LC-QTOF analysis rice; Penicillium brocae; Ames test; citreoviridin; LC-QTOF analysis
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Shiratori, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Tulayakul, P.; Sugiura, Y.; Takino, M.; Endo, O.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Occurrence of Penicillium brocae and Penicillium citreonigrum, which Produce a Mutagenic Metabolite and a Mycotoxin Citreoviridin, Respectively, in Selected Commercially Available Rice Grains in Thailand. Toxins 2017, 9, 194.

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