Next Article in Journal
Comment on Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies. Toxins 2016, 8, 358
Next Article in Special Issue
Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus “Classic” Decontamination
Previous Article in Journal
Toxins of Prokaryotic Toxin-Antitoxin Systems with Sequence-Specific Endoribonuclease Activity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(4), 141; doi:10.3390/toxins9040141

Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples

1
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Biology Department, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3
USDA-ARS, Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
5
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
6
Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 1 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2320 KB, uploaded 19 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that 3-keto-4-deoxynivalenol was the major by-product of DON. Via 16S rRNA sequencing, these mixed cultures, including mostly members of the genera Acinetobacter, Leadbetterella, and Gemmata, were revealed. Incubation of one of these mixed cultures with wheat samples naturally contaminated with 7.1 μg/mL DON indicated nearly complete conversion of DON to the less toxic 3-epimer-DON (3-epi-DON). Our work extends previous studies that have demonstrated the potential for bioprospecting for microorganisms from the environment to remediate or modify mycotoxins for commercial applications, such as the reduction of mycotoxins in fuel ethanol co-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, N.M.; McMaster, N.; Gantulga, D.; Soyars, C.; McCormick, S.P.; Knott, K.; Senger, R.S.; Schmale, D.G. Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples. Toxins 2017, 9, 141.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top