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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 141; doi:10.3390/toxins9040141

Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples

Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Biology Department, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
USDA-ARS, Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 1 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that 3-keto-4-deoxynivalenol was the major by-product of DON. Via 16S rRNA sequencing, these mixed cultures, including mostly members of the genera Acinetobacter, Leadbetterella, and Gemmata, were revealed. Incubation of one of these mixed cultures with wheat samples naturally contaminated with 7.1 μg/mL DON indicated nearly complete conversion of DON to the less toxic 3-epimer-DON (3-epi-DON). Our work extends previous studies that have demonstrated the potential for bioprospecting for microorganisms from the environment to remediate or modify mycotoxins for commercial applications, such as the reduction of mycotoxins in fuel ethanol co-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wilson, N.M.; McMaster, N.; Gantulga, D.; Soyars, C.; McCormick, S.P.; Knott, K.; Senger, R.S.; Schmale, D.G. Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples. Toxins 2017, 9, 141.

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