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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 116; doi:10.3390/toxins9040116

Venom Profiling of a Population of the Theraphosid Spider Phlogius crassipes Reveals Continuous Ontogenetic Changes from Juveniles through Adulthood

1
Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
2
Terrestrial Biodiversity, Queensland Museum, South Brisbane BC, QLD 4101, Australia
3
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
4
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lourival D. Possani
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2250 KB, uploaded 25 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Theraphosid spiders (tarantulas) are venomous arthropods found in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tarantula venoms are a complex cocktail of toxins with potential use as pharmacological tools, drugs and bioinsecticides. Although numerous toxins have been isolated from tarantula venoms, little research has been carried out on the venom of Australian tarantulas. We therefore investigated the venom profile of the Australian theraphosid spider Phlogius crassipes and examined whether there are ontogenetic changes in venom composition. Spiders were divided into four ontogenic groups according to cephalothorax length, then the venom composition of each group was examined using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the venom of P. crassipes changes continuously during development and throughout adulthood. Our data highlight the need to investigate the venom of organisms over the course of their lives to uncover and understand the changing functions of venom and the full range of toxins expressed. This in turn should lead to a deeper understanding of the organism’s ecology and enhance the potential for biodiscovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: tarantula; toxins; proteomic; mass spectrometry; LC/MS-MS; age tarantula; toxins; proteomic; mass spectrometry; LC/MS-MS; age
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Santana, R.C.; Perez, D.; Dobson, J.; Panagides, N.; Raven, R.J.; Nouwens, A.; Jones, A.; King, G.F.; Fry, B.G. Venom Profiling of a Population of the Theraphosid Spider Phlogius crassipes Reveals Continuous Ontogenetic Changes from Juveniles through Adulthood. Toxins 2017, 9, 116.

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