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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 111; doi:10.3390/toxins9040111

Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives

1
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, via Amendola 122/O, Bari 70126, Italy
2
Department of Economics, University of Foggia, via Napoli 25, Foggia 71122, Italy
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2150 KB, uploaded 24 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Worldwide mycotoxins contamination has a significant impact on animal and human health, and leads to economic losses accounted for billions of dollars annually. Since the application of pre- and post- harvest strategies, including chemical or physical removal, are not sufficiently effective, biological transformation is considered the most promising yet challenging approach to reduce mycotoxins accumulation. Although several microorganisms were reported to degrade mycotoxins, only a few enzymes have been identified, purified and characterized for this activity. This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; application mycotoxins; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; application
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Loi, M.; Fanelli, F.; Liuzzi, V.C.; Logrieco, A.F.; Mulè, G. Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives. Toxins 2017, 9, 111.

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