Next Article in Journal
A Greener, Quick and Comprehensive Extraction Approach for LC-MS of Multiple Mycotoxins
Previous Article in Journal
Tetracycline Reduces Kidney Damage Induced by Loxosceles Spider Venom
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 92; doi:10.3390/toxins9030092

Toxic Dimethylarginines: Asymmetric  Dimethylarginine (ADMA) and Symmetric  Dimethylarginine (SDMA)

1
Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
2
Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
3
Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
4
School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John P.  Berry
Received: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Non-Proteinogenic Amino Acids (NPAA))
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [530 KB, uploaded 7 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are toxic, non‐proteinogenic amino acids formed by post‐translational modification and are uremic toxins that inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and play multifunctional roles in many human diseases. Both ADMA and SDMA have emerged as strong predictors of cardiovascular events and death in a range of illnesses. Major progress has been made in research on ADMA‐lowering therapies in animal studies; however, further studies are required to fill the translational gap between animal models and clinical trials in order to treat human diseases related to elevated ADMA/SDMA levels. Here, we review the reported impacts of ADMA and SDMA on human health and disease, focusing on the synthesis and metabolism of ADMA and SDMA; the pathophysiological roles of these dimethylarginines; clinical conditions and animal models associated with elevated ADMA and SDMA levels; and potential therapies against ADMA and SDMA. There is currently no specific pharmacological therapy for lowering the levels and counteracting the deleterious effects of ADMA and SDMA. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impact of ADMA and SDMA on a wide range of human diseases is essential to the development of specific therapies against diseases related to ADMA and SDMA. View Full-Text
Keywords: alanine‐glyoxylate aminotransferase‐2; asymmetric dimethylarginine; cardiovascular  disease;  chronic  kidney disease;  dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase;  nitric  oxide;  nonproteinogenic amino acid; protein arginine methyltransferase; symmetric dimethylarginine; uremic  toxins alanine‐glyoxylate aminotransferase‐2; asymmetric dimethylarginine; cardiovascular  disease;  chronic  kidney disease;  dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase;  nitric  oxide;  nonproteinogenic amino acid; protein arginine methyltransferase; symmetric dimethylarginine; uremic  toxins
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tain, Y.; Hsu, C. Toxic Dimethylarginines: Asymmetric  Dimethylarginine (ADMA) and Symmetric  Dimethylarginine (SDMA). Toxins 2017, 9, 92.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top