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Toxins 2017, 9(3), 90; doi:10.3390/toxins9030090

Tetracycline Reduces Kidney Damage Induced by Loxosceles Spider Venom

1
Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
2
Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF144XN, UK
3
Renal Replacement Therapy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eivind Undheim
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1881 KB, uploaded 2 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Envenomation by Loxosceles spider can result in two clinical manifestations: cutaneous and systemic loxoscelism, the latter of which includes renal failure. Although incidence of renal failure is low, it is the main cause of death, occurring mainly in children. The sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) is the main component in Loxosceles spider venom responsible for local and systemic manifestations. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of L. intermedia venom and SMase D on kidney cells, using both In vitro and in vivo models, and the possible involvement of endogenous metalloproteinases (MMP). Results demonstrated that venom and SMase D are able to cause death of human kidney cells by apoptosis, concomitant with activation and secretion of extracellular matrix metalloproteases, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, cell death and MMP synthesis and secretion can be prevented by tetracycline. In a mouse model of systemic loxoscelism, Loxosceles venom-induced kidney failure was observed, which was abrogated by administration of tetracycline. These results indicate that MMPs may play an important role in Loxosceles venom-induced kidney injury and that tetracycline administration may be useful in the treatment of human systemic loxoscelism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Loxosceles venom; sphingomyelinase D; kidney cells; matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); kidney injury; tetracycline Loxosceles venom; sphingomyelinase D; kidney cells; matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); kidney injury; tetracycline
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okamoto, C.K.; van den Berg, C.W.; Masashi, M.; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, R.M.; Tambourgi, D.V. Tetracycline Reduces Kidney Damage Induced by Loxosceles Spider Venom. Toxins 2017, 9, 90.

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