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Toxins 2017, 9(3), 100; doi:10.3390/toxins9030100

Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution

1
Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic–based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Center of Agricultural Technology Extension, Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture 845350, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Calvo
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3997 KB, uploaded 11 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3 supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3 in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3 supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3 feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3 supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium wilt; cucumber; nitrogen form; nitrogen supply; fusaric acid Fusarium wilt; cucumber; nitrogen form; nitrogen supply; fusaric acid
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Zhou, J.; Wang, M.; Sun, Y.; Gu, Z.; Wang, R.; Saydin, A.; Shen, Q.; Guo, S. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution. Toxins 2017, 9, 100.

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