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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 39; doi:10.3390/toxins9010039

Is the Insect World Overcoming the Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis?

1
Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María (CITVM-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Villa María, 5900 Villa María, Córdoba, Argentina
2
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, C1 425FQB Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 18 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

The use of chemical pesticides revolutionized agriculture with the introduction of DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) as the first modern chemical insecticide. However, the effectiveness of DDT and other synthetic pesticides, together with their low cost and ease of use, have led to the generation of undesirable side effects, such as pollution of water and food sources, harm to non-target organisms and the generation of insect resistance. The alternative comes from biological control agents, which have taken an expanding share in the pesticide market over the last decades mainly promoted by the necessity to move towards more sustainable agriculture. Among such biological control agents, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins have been the most studied and commercially used biological control agents over the last 40 years. However, some insect pests have acquired field-evolved resistance to the most commonly used Bt-based pesticides, threatening their efficacy, which necessitates the immediate search for novel strains and toxins exhibiting different modes of action and specificities in order to perpetuate the insecticidal potential of this bacterium. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; insecticidal toxins; biological control; insect pests; field-evolved resistance Bacillus thuringiensis; insecticidal toxins; biological control; insect pests; field-evolved resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Peralta, C.; Palma, L. Is the Insect World Overcoming the Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis? Toxins 2017, 9, 39.

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